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Tài nguyên số từ ngân hàng thế giới mới cập nhật ngày 7 tháng 10 năm 2015
Ngày cập nhật 08/10/2015

 New research on development issues in Vietnam - Volume 7, number 31 (2015 October 6)

 

Agriculture and rural development

·        Agricultural Policies in Viet Nam 2015.

·        Chính sách Nông nghiệp Việt Nam 2015: Báo cáo rà soát Nông nghiệp và Lương thực của OECD.

·        Do Vietnamese upland farmers benefit from high world market prices for maize?

·        Mangrove Mapping and Change Detection Using Multi-temporal Landsat imagery in Hai Phong city, Vietnam.

Economic development

·        Diversification strategies and firm performance in Vietnam.

Education

·        Framing the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Post 2015: Quality and Equity Issues in Investing in Basic Education in ASEAN.

Environment

·        Vietnam: Promoting Children’s Leadership in DRR and Resilience Education: Advancing school safety in Asia.

·        Act to adapt: the next generation leads the way!

·        Coastal urban climate resilience planning in Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

·        The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam.

·        Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam.

·        Upland development, climate-related risk and institutional conditions for adaptation in Vietnam.

·        Retrospective evaluation of the GFDRR program in a sample of disaster-prone countries.

·        Our valuable voices: community digital storytelling for good programming and policy engagement.

·        Designing effective partnerships for waste-to-resource initiatives: Lessons learned from developing countries.

·        Effect of Appropriate Technology Introduction to Farm Households in Vietnam for GHG Emission Reduction.

·        Toward clearer skies: Challenges in regulating transboundary haze in Southeast Asia.

·        Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

·        Win-Win Results: Gender equality within climate change programming.

Governance

·        Public Policy and the Idea of the Vietnamese State: The Cultural Political Economy of Domestic Water Supply.

Health care

·        Hygiene and microbial contamination along the pork value chain in Vietnam [Poster].

·        Risk pathways and prevalence in slaughtered pig blood of Streptococcus suis in Vietnam [Poster].

·        Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam.

·        Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011.

·        Challenges in detection and treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Vietnam.

·        The epidemiology of subclinical malaria infections in South-East Asia: findings from cross-sectional surveys in Thailand–Myanmar border areas, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

·        Knowledge and associated factors towards type 2 diabetes among a rural population in the Red River Delta region, Vietnam.

·        Postnatal depressive symptoms amongst women in Central Vietnam: a cross-sectional study investigating prevalence and associations with social, cultural and infant factors.

·        Community pharmacy and emerging public health initiatives in developing Southeast Asian countries: a systematic review.

Energy

·        Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector.

·        The future of ASEAN energy mix: A SWOT analysis.

Transport

·        Regional Transport Infrastructure: Mapping Projects to Bridge South Asia and Southeast Asia.

·        Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam.

Labor

·        18 triệu lao động làm công ăn lương tại Việt Nam – họ là ai?

·        Who are Viet Nam’s 18 million wage workers?

·        Inquiry into the health and safety management practices of contractors in Vietnam: Preliminary findings.

·        Interwoven : How the Better Work Program Improves Job and Life Quality in the Apparel Sector.

·        Lao động di cư theo kênh chính thức và không chính thức tại một số tỉnh Bắc Trung Bộ Việt Nam: Kết quả từ khảo sát hộ gia đình.

·        Regular and irregular migrant workers in North Central Viet Nam: Findings from household surveys.

Social development

·        Child-centred climate resilience: case studies from the Philippines and Vietnam.

·        Livelihoods under stress: critical assets and mobility outcomes in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam.

·        Shifts in vulnerability landscapes: young women and internal migration in Vietnam.

·        Planned relocations in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: A successful model for climate change adaptation, a cautionary tale, or both?

·        The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

·        Rethinking resilience: social protection in the context of climate change in Vietnam.

Tourism

·        The Potentials and Challenges of Responsible Tourism in the Mekong Delta from the Experience of Travel Agencies and Local Communities in Ben Tre Province, Viet Nam.

 

 

 

Agriculture and rural development

 

Agricultural Policies in Viet Nam 2015.

OECD, 2015.

 

Abstract: This review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, assesses the performance of Vietnamese agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Vietnamese agricultural policy reforms, discusses the policy framework for sustainable investment in agriculture and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The OECD Food and Agricultural Reviews provide comprehensive assessments, according to different angles, of countries’ agricultural policies, including OECD estimates of the level of support; major reform efforts and their potential impacts; or conduciveness of the broad policy framework to generating the innovation that will improve agricultural productivity sustainably. Free full text http://www.oecd.org/countries/vietnam/agricultural-policies-in-viet-nam-2015-9789264235151-en.htm.

 

Chính sách Nông nghiệp Việt Nam 2015: Báo cáo rà soát Nông nghiệp và Lương thực của OECD.

OECD, 2015.

 

Abstract: Báo cáo rà soát này đánh giá bối cảnh chính sách và xu hướng chính của nông nghiệp Việt Nam. Báo cáo phân loại và xác định các hỗ trợ cho nông nghiệp bằng cách áp dụng cùng một phương pháp mà OECD dùng để giám sát các chính sách nông nghiệp của các nước OECD và một số nước không phải là thành viên của OECD, như Brazil, Trung Quốc, Colombia, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Nga, Nam Phi và Ukraine. Theo yêu cầu từ các cơ quan chức năng Việt Nam, Báo cáo bao gồm một chương đặc biệt về môi trường chính sách đầu tư cho nông nghiệp, lấy từ khung chính sách OECD cho đầu tư trong nông nghiệp (PFIA). Báo cáo là bước khởi đầu hướng tới việc OECD hợp tác thường xuyên với Việt Nam về các vấn đề chính sách nông nghiệp thông qua việc giám sát và đánh giá hàng năm quá trình phát triển các chính sách nông nghiệp nghiệp Việt Nam. Báo cáo phân loại và xác định các hỗ trợ cho nông nghiệp bằng cách áp dụng cùng một phương pháp mà OECD dùng để giám sát các chính sách nông nghiệp của các nước OECD và một số nước không phải là thành viên của OECD, như Brazil, Trung Quốc, Colombia, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Nga, Nam Phi và Ukraine. Theo yêu cầu từ các cơ quan chức năng Việt Nam, Báo cáo bao gồm một chương đặc biệt về môi trường chính sách đầu tư cho nông nghiệp, lấy từ khung chính sách OECD cho đầu tư trong nông nghiệp (PFIA). Báo cáo là bước khởi đầu hướng tới việc OECD hợp tác thường xuyên với Việt Nam về các vấn đề chính sách nông nghiệp thông qua việc giám sát và đánh giá hàng năm quá trình phát triển các chính sách nông nghiệp. Free full texthttp://www.oecd.org/countries/vietnam/agricultural-policies-in-viet-nam-2015-9789264235151-en.htm.

 

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Do Vietnamese upland farmers benefit from high world market prices for maize?

Jonas Luckmann, Rico Ihle, Ulrich Kleinwechter and Harald Grethe. Agricultural Economics, 2015.

 

Abstract: For rural households in the north of Vietnam, maize cropping is the main source of income. In the face of the world market price increases of the recent past, we analyze the regional marketing chain of this commodity qualitatively and econometrically investigating to what extent smallholder farmers in developing countries are affected by international price movements. Vietnamese maize markets are found to be well integrated. Recent price hikes have fully transmitted along the regional supply chain so that farmers profited. Nevertheless, adverse factors such as increasing input prices have neutralized these benefits resulting in a decline in real income of smallholders. [wiley].

 

Mangrove Mapping and Change Detection Using Multi-temporal Landsat imagery in Hai Phong city, Vietnam.

Tien Dat Pham and Kunihiko Yoshino. 17th - 19th March The International Symposium on Cartography in Internet and Ubiquitous Environments 2015, Tokyo, 2015.

 

Abstract: Mangroves play an important role in protecting dyke systems and defend against the impact of tropical storms. However, these forests are under severe threat due to rapid population growth, insufficient governance, poor planning, and uncoordinated economic development. Hai Phong city is located on the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed in zone I and zone II of the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more prevalent and stronger as climate change intensifies. The objectives of this research were to map the locations of mangrove and to analyze their change in Hai Phong, Vietnam from 1989 to 2013 using different LANDSAT sensors including TM, ETM+ and OLI. Image segmentation was used to improve the accuracy assessment of the post satellite image processing. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing data were utilized to analyze how the mangroves had changed throughout the period 1989-2013. The findings of this research showed mangrove loss from 1989 to 2001 and  gain from 2001 to 2013. The overall accuracy of satellite imagery processingfor the year 2013 was 83% and the Kappa coefficient was 0.81. This research indicates the potential for use of multi-temporal LANDSAT data together with image segmentation and a GIS approach for mapping mangrove forest in the coastal zone. Free full text http://ubimap.csis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ciu2015/Proceedings/Full_Paper/G2_Mangrove%20Mapping%20and%20Change%20Detection%20Using%20Multi-temporal%20Landsat%20imagery%20in%20Hai%20Phong%20city,%20Vietnam.pdf.

 

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Economic development

 

Diversification strategies and firm performance in Vietnam.

Enrico Santarelli and Hien Thu Tran. Economics of Transition, 2015.

 

Abstract: This paper is based upon the assumption that a firm's profitability is determined by its degree of diversification which is, in turn, strongly related to the antecedent decision to carry out diversification activities. This calls for an empirical approach that permits the joint analysis of the three interrelated and consecutive stages of the overall diversification process: diversification decision, degree of diversification and outcome of diversification. We apply parametric and semi-parametric approaches to control for sample selection and the endogeneity of the diversification decision in both static and dynamic models. For the analysis, we use the census dataset on the whole firm population in Vietnam, as a representative of transition countries. After controlling for industry fixed-effects, the empirical evidence from the firm-level data shows that diversification has a curvilinear effect on profitability: it improves firms’ profit up to a point, after which a further increase in diversification is associated with declining performance. This implies that firms should consider optimal levels of product diversification when they expand their product offerings beyond their core business. Other noteworthy findings include the following: (i) the factors that stimulate firms to diversify do not necessarily encourage them to extend their diversification strategy; (ii) firms that are endowed with highly technological resources and innovation investment are likely to successfully exploit diversification as an engine of growth; and (iii) while industry performance does not have a strong influence on the profitability of firms, it impacts their diversification decision as well as the degree of diversification. [wiley].

 

Education

 

Framing the ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC) Post 2015: Quality and Equity Issues in Investing in Basic Education in ASEAN.

Jr. Tereso S. TULLAO, Miguel Roberto BORROMEO and Christopher James CABUAY. ERIA Discussion Paper Series ERIA-DP-2015-65, 2015.

 

Abstract: The paper starts with a survey on the role of basic education in society. Basic education promotes social cohesion, cultural appreciation, and civic consciousness, and bestows economic benefits to individuals and society. Although basic education does not fit into the strict conditions of public goods, governments are willing to finance and even directly operate schools because of its extensive spillover effects. Thus, it can be considered as a public good by design. The paper reviews the quality and equity considerations in the provision of basic education in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) as well as the regional and national initiatives in addressing universal access and improving quality of basic education. The paper concludes with a discussion on the major issues confronting basic education and recommends the improvement of participation rates and survival rates by using developments in information and communications technology (ICT) and alternative mechanisms of financing and delivery. In addition, avenues for regional cooperation in improving quality of basic education can be done through capacity building and sharing of best practices rather than efforts towards standardisation. Free full texthttp://www.eria.org/ERIA-DP-2015-65.pdf.

 

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Environment

 

Vietnam: Promoting Children’s Leadership in DRR and Resilience Education: Advancing school safety in Asia.

World Vision International South Asia & Pacific Regional, 2015.

 

Abstract: This document developed by World Vision International, Asia Pacific Region provides cases studies from 8 different countries in Asia on Safe Schools initiatives. These initiatives are aimed to promote the three pillars of the Comprehensive School Safety Framework (CSSF) as an integrated approach to reduce risk and promote resilience in the education sector. These three pillars are: Safe Learning Facilities; School Disaster Management; Risk Reduction and Resilience Education. The case studies included in the document are: (i) Enabling children to raise community awareness on DRR; (ii) Advancing school safety in partnership with government; (iii) Strengthening students' safety through green school approach (iv) Scaling-up comprehensive school safety through effective collaboration; (v) Linking community-based DRM with school safety; (vi) Reducing earthquake risk in schools through preparedness and retrofitting; (vii) Child focused disaster risk reduction (CFDRR) and; (viii) Promoting children's leadership in DRR and resilience education. [WV-2015.pdf]. Free full texthttp://www.preventionweb.net/files/42639_magazineschoolsafetyasia2015web.pdf.

 

Act to adapt: the next generation leads the way!

Plan International, 2015.

 

Abstract: This publication documents achievements of Plan International’s Child Centred Climate Change Adaptation programme, aimed at building the awareness of children and their communities about climate change and disaster risk reduction, and to empower them to be active participants in adaptation efforts. The publication features case studies and valuable lessons of projects on capacity building and awareness raising, community-based DRR, school safety, education governance in program countries: four countries in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam) and in six countries in the Pacific (Fiji, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Tuvalu). [Plan-2015.pdf]. Free full texthttps://www.weadapt.org/system/files_force/plan4ca_brochure_2015_webversion_0.pdf?download=1.

 

Coastal urban climate resilience planning in Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

VU Kim CHI, Nguyen THI Thuy HANG, DINH THI Bao Hoa, Luong THI VAN, Nguyen HUU XUAN and others. IIED Asian Cities Climate Resilience WoRKING PAPER SERIES 15: 2015, 2015.

 

Abstract: Climate change, sea-level rise and associated events such as shoreline erosion, coastal flooding and water pollution could affect coastal areas in a variety of ways. New approaches to understanding urban planning and land, water, waste and ecosystem management are needed. In this working paper, we have used a series of Landsat satellite images from 1973 to 2013 to detect changes in urban areas and shoreline modifications of Quy Nhon City, Vietnam. Results show that the changes are significantly associated with anthropogenic activity. We also used logistic regression to test the relevant spatial variables involved in the urban expansion process. our study reveals that urban planning is a spatial decision-making process, which requires a multi-disciplinary research approach. It should take into account a range of factors from social aspects to the natural conditions of the urban territory, which is required to consider city development in a global context. Free full text http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10724IIED.pdf.

 

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The Economic Costs of Climate Change: A Multi-Sector Impact Assessment for Vietnam.

Channing Arndt, Finn Tarp and James Thurlow. Sustainability, 2015, volume 7, pp. 4131-4145.

 

Abstract: We adopt a multi-sectoral approach and consider the full range of climate projections. Biophysical damages are translated into economic costs using a dynamic economy-wide model. Our results indicate that the negative impacts on agriculture and roads are modest to 2050. Larger costs are caused by rising sea levels and cyclone strikes. Overall, climate change is likely to reduce national income by between one and two percent by 2050 (relative to a historical baseline). Damages double under more extreme projections. Our findings suggest that there are net benefits from selected pre-emptive actions though careful consideration of opportunity costs is required. [Arndt-etal-2015.pdf].

 

Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam.

MONRE, 2015.

 

Abstract: The Intended Nationally Determined Contribution of Viet Nam (INDC) is being formulated primarily to assist the Government of Viet Nam in determining possible mitigation targets, adaptive measures and costs, as well as corresponding policy measures to enhance Viet Nam’s climate resilience, low-carbon development, and contribution to global efforts in response to climate change. Four specific objectives of the INDCs include: (i) developing robust, realistic and achievable INDCs; (ii) establishing an organised, efficient process that leads to timely, credible and long-term political decisions; (iii) creating leadership, trust and mutual accountability with domestic stakeholders; and (iv) forming institutional arrangements that can be used for subsequent implementation phases. [Vietnam INDC.pdf]. Free full texthttp://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Viet%20Nam/1/VIETNAM'S%20INDC.pdf.

 

Upland development, climate-related risk and institutional conditions for adaptation in Vietnam.

Malin Beckman and My Van Thi Nguyen. Climate and Development, 2015, pp. 1-10.

 

Abstract: The paper argues that policies towards upland communities in Vietnam tend to reinforce land use strategies that increase vulnerability to climate-related risk and undermine adaptive capacity of upland communities. It is argued that the division of land use between intensive agriculture/tree plantation and protected forest is increasing both livelihood- and environmental risk. Qualitative interviews and group discussion with upland villagers and local government staff in two districts of north and central Vietnam suggest that farmers are facing frequent loss and damage due to floods, storms and drought. Changing production patterns, together with the increase in climate-related hazards and stresses, is changing the character of vulnerability of upland communities. The study primarily explores village-level perspectives regarding impacts of hazards and stresses, ideas of how to reduce risk, along with how related policies and institutions influence local possibilities of risk reduction and adaptation. Our fieldwork results suggest that many villagers and local leaders see adaptation and risk reduction in terms of improved irrigation and in terms of access to land and forests for their livelihoods. The findings support arguments for more integration of agriculture and forestry land use, allowing for more flexibility in the development of upland livelihoods, with the aim of facilitating adaptation to climate change. [tf].

 

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Retrospective evaluation of the GFDRR program in a sample of disaster-prone countries.

DARA - Spain, 2014.

 

Abstract: This evaluation presents evidence of the Secretariat of the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)'s improvements in disaster risk management (DRM) performance in five countries (Guatemala, Malawi, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Vietnam) and analyzes the implications for the theoretical model that sustains its approach and the current Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework. In particular, the evaluation sought to fulfill following objectives: (a) identify if program outputs are contributing to expected (and unexpected) improvements in DRM performance in a sample of priority, disaster-prone countries participating in the GFDRR program; (b) test whether the assumptions made in defining expected program effects hold true; and (c) draw lessons learned and make recommendations on: (i) the M&E Framework, including whether (and how) to adjust indicators for improved program design and evaluation; and (ii) the development of the program theory model. [DARA-2014.pdf]. Free full texthttp://resources.daraint.org/gfdrr/retrospective_evaluation_report.pdf.

 

Our valuable voices: community digital storytelling for good programming and policy engagement.

Care International (CI), 2015.

 

Abstract: This document highlights the experience and lessons learned from a Community Digital Storytelling (CDST) activity by CARE International through its Integrated Community-based Adaptation in the Mekong (ICAM) Project, funded by the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. It explores ways CDST can be used to strengthen people’s capacity and resolve as equal participants in climate change and disaster risk reduction decision-making spaces. CDST is a participatory development process where community members develop and share photo-video stories as a means to raise awareness, stimulate dialog and influence policy. While CDST worked well in a climate change context, it can be adapted and used in other contexts to raise community voice for social change and justice. The publication is aimed at climate change - disaster risk reduction practitioners interested in applying an innovative methodology to reach the most vulnerable. [CARE intl-2015a.pdf]. Free full text https://www.care.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/CARE_Vietnam_Our-Valuable-Voices_Community-Digital-Stroytelling.pdf.

 

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Designing effective partnerships for waste-to-resource initiatives: Lessons learned from developing countries.

Donovan Storey, Lorenzo Santucci, Rowan Fraser, Joao Aleluia and Laksiri Chomchuen. Waste Management & Research, 2015.

 

Abstract: Cities in developing countries across Asia-Pacific are struggling to effectively manage municipal solid waste (MSW). This is especially the case in secondary cities and small towns, which often face a lack of resources and know-how. Because the waste stream in these cities is usually high in organic content (50–80%) and recyclable materials (10–20%), waste-to-resource initiatives are viable options for sustainable MSW management. Waste-to-resource initiatives that are low-cost, low-tech, decentralised and community-based offer municipalities useful solutions for managing their MSW. However, the sustainability of such solutions depends on a number of key factors, such as the separation of waste at source, the effective engagement of communities and steady and predictable sources of revenue. Using quantitative data and qualitative information derived from field experience, this paper concludes that effective partnerships between a diverse range of stakeholders must be designed and fostered in order to achieve sustainability. The paper provides an analysis of stakeholder roles for the establishment of effective partnerships in four case study cities of Matale and Ratnapura (Sri Lanka) and Kon Tum and Quy Nhon (Viet Nam), where waste-to-resource facilities have been established, and explores the resources of stakeholders and how these can be mobilised to support waste-to-resource initiatives for revenue generation and long-term sustainability.

 

Effect of Appropriate Technology Introduction to Farm Households in Vietnam for GHG Emission Reduction.

Taro Izumi, Yoshiro Higano, Eiji Matsubara, Duong T. Dung, Le T. Minh and others. Journal of Sustainable Development, 2015, volume 8, number 8.

 

Abstract: In June 2015, carbon credits amounting to 446 t of CO2 were issued for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project developed and implemented in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the introduction of biogas digesters (BDs) to farm households. Subsequently, the project was evaluated in terms of GHG emission reductions (i.e., carbon credits issued), receptiveness of  farm households to the technology, and economic benefits to these families. Findings confirmed that BDs provide concrete reductions in GHG emissions and are beneficial to install in such scenarios. Currently, a new international framework for post-2020 global warming mitigation is being considered by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), in which all signatory countries would participate, including the developing countries that have not yet been mandated to make reductions. These evaluation results present a potential policy direction for developing countries to reduce their GHG emissions. Free full texthttp://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/viewFile/50476/28603.

 

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Toward clearer skies: Challenges in regulating transboundary haze in Southeast Asia.

Janice Ser Huay Lee, Zeehan Jaafar, Alan Khee Jin Tan, Luis R. Carrasco, J. Jackson Ewing and others. Environmental Science & Policy, 2016, volume 55, Part 1, pp. 87-95.

 

Abstract: Addressing transboundary environmental problems, such as pollution, and climate change, hinge on strategies that often require both mandatory and voluntary participation of affected nations. Using an unprecedented approach, the Singapore government recently passed a Transboundary Haze Pollution Act (THPA) that financially penalizes companies for smoke-haze affecting the city-state but originating from activities outside her political boundaries. This Act may set a precedent for future actions against proximate actors of environmental degradation but is fraught with substantial challenges in implementation. In attempting to hold agri-business companies accountable, the THPA must present indisputable evidence of fire burning activities and positively identify the initiator of these fires. We further argue that small amendments to the THPA, and other similar laws, may result in environmental co-benefits related to carbon emissions, ecosystem services and biodiversity preservation. [sci].

 

Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

P. H. Giang, H. Harada, S. Fujii, N. P. Lien, H. T. Hai and others. Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 2015, volume 72, number 7, pp. 1072-81.

 

Abstract: Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil.

 

Win-Win Results: Gender equality within climate change programming.

Care International (CI), 2015.

 

Abstract: Climate change poses major global challenges, but its implications for lives and livelihoods in Vietnam are very local. The impacts of climate change are, to a significant degree, determined by the fulfilment of rights and the distribution of resources and power among people, at home and in the community. Gender is a critical factor in this and women and men, girls and boys in Vietnam have different life chances, opportunities, resources and rewards that shape the way they can respond to a changing climate. Women as a group are often viewed as being more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change than men, without recognition of the diversity among different groups of women. Climate change activities often target women without addressing the nuanced underlying power dynamics that often limit their access to the benefits of climate change interventions. [CARE intl-2015b.pdf]. Free full text http://careclimatechange.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Learning-Series-1-Win-Win-Results-2015_09_04.pdf.

 

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Governance

 

Public Policy and the Idea of the Vietnamese State: The Cultural Political Economy of Domestic Water Supply.

Nadine Reis and Peter P. Mollinga. Asian Studies Review, 2015, pp. 1-21.

 

Abstract: Using Rural Water Supply (RWS) policy practices as a case study, this article shows that the disjunction between implementation as formally conceived and informally practised is not a question of ineffective policy cycle dynamics, but rather an inherent feature of Vietnam's Cultural Political Economy. Drawing on critical realist approaches to social and state theory, we argue that formal and informal RWS policy practices, as a set of two interconnected spheres, serve as key, separate but connected, mechanisms for reproducing the distribution of material resources (primarily through the informal sphere) and the hegemony of ideas (primarily through the formal sphere) in Vietnamese society. We conclude that the formal, administrative practices of RWS policy are primarily to be understood in their function of reproducing the idea of the state and state legitimacy. RWS administrative practices function to sustain the core social and political order in Vietnam as institutionalised in "the state", rather than being primarily oriented to improving rural water supply. The findings raise questions for donor-supported programs that focus on formal administrative institutions and practices for improving the performance of the water sector. [tf].

 

Health care

 

Hygiene and microbial contamination along the pork value chain in Vietnam [Poster].

Sinh Dang-Xuan, Hung Nguyen-Viet, Phuc Pham-Duc, Ngan Tran-Thi, Thanh Nguyen-Tien and others. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel, Switzerland, 6-10 September 2015, 2015.

 

Abstract: In Vietnam, pork accounts for 75% of total meat consumed daily at households. However, pork may contain high levels of microbial contamination such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli which might cause harm to consumers. To determine microbial contamination along the pork value chain, we collected 216 samples from 72 pig farms (floor swab, drinking and waste water), 545 from 49 slaughterhouses (carcass swab, lymph node, rectal feces, floor swab and washing water) and 514 from 220 pork shops in the informal markets (pork cuts, ground pork and cutting board swab) in two provinces of Vietnam (Hung Yen and Nghe An). Samples were analyzed to detect qualitatively and quantitatively Salmonella and E. coli. Overall prevalence of Salmonella combined from all types of above mentioned samples at pig farms, slaughterhouses and pork shops were 35%, 30% and 37%, respectively. Salmonella contamination in the final product (pork at market) was 45% and an average concentration of 9 MPN/g was recorded. E. coli average load along different points of the chain was 5.3 ± 1.4 (farm floor swabs), 2.9 ± 0.9 (carcass swabs), 3.1 ± 1.0 (slaughterhouse floor swabs), and 3.3 ± 1.1 (market shop cutting board swabs) logCFU/cm2, whereas pork from the market had 3.4 ± 0.9 logCFU/g. Demonstrated high levels of Salmonella in the final product (pork at market) induces the potential health risks for the consumers. High values for E. coli indicates general poor hygiene along the chain. Appropriate hygiene practices and management are required to achieve better pork quality and reduce the risk for the consumer. These data will serve as inputs for health risk assessments related to pork consumption. Free full text https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/68288.

 

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Risk pathways and prevalence in slaughtered pig blood of Streptococcus suis in Vietnam [Poster].

Sinh Dang-Xuan, J.E. Bryant, F. Unger, Bao Ngo-Thanh, Bich Vu Thi Ngoc and others. 9th European Congress on Tropical Medicine and International Health, Basel, Switzerland, 6-10 September 2015, 2015.

 

Abstract: Streptococcus suis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in Vietnamese adults, and the major risk factors have been identified as consumption of raw pig blood (Tiet canh), and occupational exposure to pigs. Previous studies of S. suis prevalence in pigs sampled from southern Vietnam have indicated very high levels of commensal infection in tonsil specimens, however there is relatively little data on prevalence rates of systemic infections in pigs (as indicated by detection from fresh blood), and prevalence rates from northern and central Vietnam have yet to be described. To address these data gaps, we sampled blood from 147 slaughtered pigs in two provinces Hung Yen (North) and Nghe An (Center) and analyzed for S. suis using PCR (16S- S. suis and S. suis serotype 2). In addition, we surveyed 406 heads of household and 51 slaughterhouse workers in these areas to understand behaviors and attitudes toward consumption of raw pig blood. A total of 33.3% of 147 pig blood samples tested positive with S. suis, but only 1.4% (2/147) were positive to S. suis serotype 2, the serotype most frequently associated with severe human infections. Fifteen of 406 people interviewed (3.4%) reported eating ‘Tiet canh’, whereas this rate was significantly higher at 43.1% (21 of 51) for slaughterhouse workers. These findings will be discussed in the context of the growing body of literature on S. suis epidemiology, culinary practices involving raw or undercooked pig products, and risk mitigation strategies to minimize disease transmission. Free full text https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/68285.

 

Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Viet Nam.

S. Saksena, J. Fox, M. Epprecht, C. C. Tran, D. H. Nong and others. PLoS ONE, 2015, volume 10, number 9, p. e0138138.

 

Abstract: Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID), the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs. Free full text http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0138138.

 

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Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1) among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011.

T. C. Dung, P. N. Dinh, V. S. Nam, L. M. Tan, K. Hang Nle and others. Western Pacific surveillance and response journal : WPSAR, 2014, volume 5, number 4, pp. 21-6.

 

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1) in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1) specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs). We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1) among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. METHODS: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1) viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6-8.3). The highest proportion (7.2%) was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3%) were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. DISCUSSION: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1) requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian-human transmission of influenza A(H5N1) in Viet Nam. Free full text http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4318972/.

 

Challenges in detection and treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Vietnam.

Thuy Thi Thanh Hoang, Nhung Viet Nguyen, Sy Ngoc Dinh, Hoa Binh Nguyen, Frank Cobelens and others. BMC Public Health, 2015, volume 15.

 

Abstract: Background: Vietnam is ranked 14 th among 27 countries with high burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). In 2009, the Vietnamese government issued a policy on MDR-TB called Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) to enhance and scale up diagnosis and treatment services for MDR-TB. Here we assess the PMDT performance in 2013 to determine the challenges to the successful identification and enrollment for treatment of MDR-TB in Vietnam. -- Methods: In 35 provinces implementing PMDT, we quantified the number of MDR-TB presumptive patients tested for MDR-TB by Xpert MTB/RIF and the number of MDR-TB patients started on second-line treatment. In addition, existing reports and documents related to MDR-TB policies and guidelines in Vietnam were reviewed, supplemented with focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with MDR-TB key staff members. -- Results: 5,668 (31.2 %) of estimated 18,165 MDR-TB presumptive cases were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF and second-line treatment was provided to 948 out of 5100 (18.7 %) of MDR-TB patients. Those tested for MDR-TB were 340/3224 (10.5 %) of TB-HIV co-infected patients and 290/2214 (13.1 %) of patients who remained sputum smear-positive after 2 and 3 months of category I TB regimen. Qualitative findings revealed the following challenges to detection and enrollment of MDR-TB in Vietnam: insufficient TB screening capacity at district hospitals where TB units were not available and poor communication and implementation of policy changes. Instructions for policy changes were not always received, and training was inconsistent between training courses. The private sector did not adequately report MDR-TB cases to the NTP. -- Conclusions: The proportion of MDR-TB patients diagnosed and enrolled for second-line treatment is less than 20 % of the estimated total. The low enrollment is largely due to the fact that many patients at risk are missed for MDR-TB screening. In order to detect more MDR-TB cases, Vietnam should intensify case finding of MDR-TB by a comprehensive strategy to screen for MDR-TB among new cases rather than targeting previously treated cases, in particular those with HIV co-infection and contacts of MDR-TB patients, and should engage the private sector in PMDT. Free full text http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/15/980.

 

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The epidemiology of subclinical malaria infections in South-East Asia: findings from cross-sectional surveys in Thailand–Myanmar border areas, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

Mallika Imwong, Thuy Nhien Nguyen, Rupam Tripura, Tom J. Peto, Sue J. Lee and others. Malaria Journal, 2015, volume 14.

 

Abstract: Background: The importance of the submicroscopic reservoir of Plasmodium infections for malaria elimination depends on its size, which is generally considered small in low transmission settings. The precise estimation of this reservoir requires more sensitive parasite detection methods. The prevalence of asymptomatic, sub-microscopic malaria was assessed by a sensitive, high blood volume quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method in three countries of the Greater Mekong Sub-region. -- Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in three villages in western Cambodia, four villages along the Thailand–Myanmar border and four villages in southwest Vietnam. Malaria parasitaemia was assessed by Plasmodium falciparum/pan malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy and a high volume ultra-sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction (HVUSqPCR: limit of detection 22 parasites/mL). All villagers older than 6 months were invited to participate. -- Results: A census before the surveys identified 7355 residents in the study villages. Parasite prevalence was 224/5008 (4 %) by RDT, 229/5111 (5 %) by microscopy, and 988/4975 (20 %) when assessed by HVUSqPCR. Of these 164 (3 %) were infected with P. falciparum, 357 (7 %) with Plasmodium vivax, 56 (1 %) with a mixed infection, and 411 (8 %) had parasite densities that were too low for species identification. A history of fever, male sex, and age of 15 years or older were independently associated with parasitaemia in a multivariate regression model stratified by site. -- Conclusion: Light microscopy and RDTs identified only a quarter of all parasitaemic participants. The asymptomatic Plasmodium reservoir is considerable, even in low transmission settings. Novel strategies are needed to eliminate this previously under recognized reservoir of malaria transmission. Free full text http://www.malariajournal.com/content/14/1/381.

 

Knowledge and associated factors towards type 2 diabetes among a rural population in the Red River Delta region, Vietnam.

Binh T., Phuong P. and Nhung B. Rural and Remote Health, 2015, volume 15.

 

Abstract: Introduction:  Knowledge about type 2 diabetes (T2D) and attitude towards the condition are known to affect compliance and play an important role in diabetes management. T2D knowledge is a prerequisite for individuals and communities to take action on control of the disease. -- Methods:  A cross-sectional study was designed to identify knowledge and related factors towards T2D, risk factors, complications, prevention and treatment of the disease. A total of 2580 subjects representative of the general population aged 40–64 years was recruited from a typical province of Red River Delta region, Vietnam. The trained surveyors interviewed subjects directly to collect data, using a structured questionnaire. To evaluate the overall knowledge of T2D, 14 questions were used to calculate the 100 points. Total knowledge score was classified into the following four categories: highly insufficient (≤25 points), insufficient (26–50 points), satisfactory (51–75 points), and highly satisfactory (>75 points). Association between inadequate knowledge (<50 points) and variables was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. -- Results:  The highly insufficient, insufficient, satisfactory, and highly satisfactory levels of the overall knowledge were 75, 17.9, 6.8, and 0.3%, respectively. Of the total population, more than 65% thought that there is no cure for diabetes, and more than 90% did not know the essential combination of drugs, diet, and physical activity in T2D treatment. Less than 10% of the population understood the concept of T2D, its risk factors, complications, approaches to prevention and treatment. The rural–urban difference of T2D knowledge was found in rates of understanding at least one risk factor (34.8% vs 63%), all the three methods for T2D prevention (1.7% vs 10.3%), and three combined approaches for T2D treatment (8.9% vs 16.4%). Age, residence, educational level, and occupation were the most significant factors associated with inadequate knowledge. -- Conclusions:  The study shows a low level of diabetes knowledge among the general population aged 40–64 years in the Red River Delta, and significantly lower awareness in rural areas compared with urban areas. The limited awareness has indicated the urgent need for communication and education to improve the T2D knowledge of the Vietnamese population on risk factors, serious level, complications, prevention and treatment, taking into account the age, residence, educational level, and occupation of the subjects. Free full text http://www.rrh.org.au/Articles/printviewnew.asp?ArticleID=3275.

 

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Postnatal depressive symptoms amongst women in Central Vietnam: a cross-sectional study investigating prevalence and associations with social, cultural and infant factors.

Linda Murray, Michael P. Dunne, Thang Van Vo, Phuong Nguyen Thi Anh, Nigar G. Khawaja and others. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2015, volume 15.

 

Abstract: Background: This study investigated the prevalence and socio-cultural correlates of postnatal mood disturbance amongst women 18–45 years old in Central Vietnam. Son preference and traditional confinement practices were explored as well as factors such as poverty, parity, family and intimate partner relationships and infant health. -- Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in twelve randomly selected Commune Health Centres from urban and rural districts of Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. Mother-infant dyads one to six months postpartum were invited to participate. Questionnaires from 431 mothers (urban n = 216; rural n = 215) assessed demographic and family characteristics, traditional confinement practices, son preference, infant health and social capital. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and WHO5 Wellbeing Index indicated depressive symptoms and emotional wellbeing. Data were analysed using general linear models. -- Results: Using an EPDS cut-off of 12/13, 18.1 % (n = 78, 95 % CI 14.6 - 22.1) of women had depressive symptoms (20.4 % urban; 15.8 % rural). Contrary to predictions, infant gender and traditional confinement were unrelated to depressive symptoms. Poverty, food insecurity, being frightened of family members, and intimate partner violence increased both depressive symptoms and lowered wellbeing. The first model accounted for 30.2 % of the variance in EPDS score and found being frightened of one’s husband, husband’s unemployment, breastfeeding difficulties, infant diarrhoea, and cognitive social capital were associated with higher EPDS scores. The second model had accounted for 22 % of the variance in WHO5 score. Living in Hue city, low education, poor maternal competence and a negative family response to the baby lowered maternal wellbeing. -- Conclusions: Traditional confinement practices and son preference were not linked to depressive symptoms among mothers, but were correlates of family relationships and wellbeing. Poverty, food insecurity, violence, infant ill health, and discordant intimate and family relationships were linked with depressive symptoms in Central Vietnam. Free full text http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/s12884-015-0662-5.pdf.

 

Community pharmacy and emerging public health initiatives in developing Southeast Asian countries: a systematic review.

Andi Hermansyah, Erica Sainsbury and Ines Krass. Health & Social Care in the Community, 2015.

 

Abstract: The development of health and healthcare systems in South-East Asia has influenced the practice of community pharmacy. Over the years, community pharmacy in the region has striven to expand services beyond dispensing to encompass more involvement in public health issues. Searches were conducted in Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed for articles published between January 2000 and December 2014, with 21 studies in five countries meeting the inclusion criteria. The findings showed increasing interest in research into the delivery of pharmacy services and public health initiatives. Overall, the review found that provision of some health services in pharmacies was common; however, most public health initiatives appeared to be poorly implemented, had limited evidence and were not demonstrated to be sustainable across the sector. This indicates that the practice of community pharmacy in the region has not significantly changed over the past 14 years with respect to the scope and quality of pharmacy services provided, and fundamental policy changes are necessary to improve this situation. [wiley].

 

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Energy

 

Advancing Development and Greenhouse Gas Reductions in Vietnam's Wind Sector.

D. Bilello, J. Katz, S. Esterly and M. Ogonowski, 2014.

 

Abstract: Clean energy development is a key component of Vietnam's Green Growth Strategy, which establishes a target to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from domestic energy activities by 20-30 percent by 2030 relative to a business-as-usual scenario. Vietnam has significant wind energy resources, which, if developed, could help the country reach this target while providing ancillary economic, social, and environmental benefits. Given Vietnam's ambitious clean energy goals and the relatively nascent state of wind energy development in the country, this paper seeks to fulfill two primary objectives: to distill timely and useful information to provincial-level planners, analysts, and project developers as they evaluate opportunities to develop local wind resources; and, to provide insights to policymakers on how coordinated efforts may help advance large-scale wind development, deliver near-term GHG emission reductions, and promote national objectives in the context of a low emission development framework. Free full text http://www.osti.gov/scitech//servlets/purl/1158438/.

 

The future of ASEAN energy mix: A SWOT analysis.

Xunpeng Shi. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2016, volume 53, pp. 672-680.

 

Abstract: This paper assesses competing outlooks for energy mix in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), highlighting the paradox of its fossil fuel-dominated outlooks when contrasted with its aspirations to move toward a green energy mix, and reviews green energy strategies using the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis method. The paper argues that despite the looming brown outlooks due to the expected surge of coal, the ASEAN region has many advantages in providing cleaner energy for its green vision. However, reduction of CO2 emissions has not been explicitly set in the region’s policy agenda and thus green energy potential is underdeveloped. To achieve a greener energy mix, ASEAN needs to make further efforts such as cleaner use and removal of subsidies of fossil fuels, promotion of renewables and energy efficiency, regional market integration and connectivity, and execution of existing plans by nations. Ultimately, each of these strategies will require sustained leadership, political determination, and concrete actions from stakeholders, in particular, national governments across the region. [sci].

 

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Transport

 

Regional Transport Infrastructure: Mapping Projects to Bridge South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Peter Morgan, Mike Plummer and Ganeshan Wignaraja. ADB Brief, 2015.

 

Abstract: Asia are growing and forging closer economic ties than ever before. Improving the quality of regional transport infrastructure can increase trade and economic growth. This ADB Brief examines the critical role of regional transport infrastructure to connect South Asia and Southeast Asia and maps $63 billion worth of road, rail, and port projects. It maps the details of economic corridors and highways, railroads, and seaports. It also attempts to identify priority transport investment projects to link the two subregions. Finally, it summarizes the key findings and discusses the potential benefits from investing in transport infrastructure to link the two subregions. Free full text http://www.adb.org/publications/regional-transport-infrastructure-mapping-projects.

 

Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam.

Paul S. Chinowsky, Amy E. Schweikert, Niko Strzepek and Kenneth Strzepek. Sustainability, 2015, volume 7, pp. 5452-5470.

 

Abstract: Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future. [Chinowsky-etal-2015.pdf].

 

Labor

 

18 triệu lao động làm công ăn lương tại Việt Nam – họ là ai?

ILO, 2015.

 

Abstract: Báo cáo tóm tắt mới của Văn phòng ILO Việt Nam hé lộ một bức chân dung toàn diện về người lao động làm công ăn lương tại Việt Nam. Những đặc điểm quan trọng này được kỳ vọng sẽ hỗ trợ quá trình hoạch định chính sách dựa trên bằng chứng, phục vụ tốt nhất cho lực lượng lao động, đáp ứng những nhu cầu hiện tại và tương lai của doanh nghiệp, hỗ trợ việc tái cơ cấu và phát triển toàn diện của đất nước. Free full text http://www.ilo.org/hanoi/Informationresources/Librarydocumentationcenter/WCMS_384764/lang--vi/index.htm.

 

Who are Viet Nam’s 18 million wage workers?

ILO, 2015.

 

Abstract: The new policy brief issued by the ILO in Viet Nam reveals a comprehensive portrait of wage earners in Viet Nam. These important characteristics are expected to be translated into evidence-based policies that best fit the workforce, meet today’s and future demands of businesses and support structural change and inclusive growth of the country. Free full text http://www.ilo.org/hanoi/Informationresources/Librarydocumentationcenter/WCMS_384763/lang--en/index.htm.

 

Inquiry into the health and safety management practices of contractors in Vietnam: Preliminary findings.

T. T. Nguyen, P. Manu, A.M. Mahamadu and S. Ash. CIB W099 2015 Conference, Ulster University, Belfast, Northern Ireland, 10-11 September 2015, 2015.

 

Abstract: Despite the socio-economic significance of the Vietnamese construction industry, the industry continues to have a poor reputation in terms of occupational health and safety (H&S). Whilst it is evident that improvement is needed, there is a dearth of research in this area to drive and guide improvement efforts. Particularly in the area of H&S management, there is little available documented insight into the H&S management practices being implemented by contractors (i.e. construction companies). As the awareness of these practices is an important milestone to gaining understanding into areas that need improvement, this study provides preliminary insight into the H&S management practices of contractors in Vietnam. The study employed a questionnaire survey of contractors and it presents preliminary findings from the responses of 42 contractors. Within three of the key elements of H&S management (i.e. policy, organising for H&S, and risk assessment) the survey findings suggest that whilst some practices are commonplace amongst contractors, there are also practices that are less implemented by contractors. Amongst the less implemented practices are: provision of health and safety guides/manuals, undertaking risk assessments for work packages/operations, reviewing and updating risk assessments, and assessing the competence of workers/subcontractors. Whilst not conclusive given the limited number of responses, the findings presently provide preliminary indication of the aspects of H&S management that are weak amongst contractors and may thus need attention.

 

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Interwoven : How the Better Work Program Improves Job and Life Quality in the Apparel Sector.

World Bank, 2015.

 

Abstract: The Better Work Program has its roots in the Better Factories Cambodia (BFC) program, established in 2001 as a follow-on from the 1999 U.S.-Cambodia Bilateral Trade Agreement. The free trade agreement (FTA) was the first to link improved labor conditions with greater market access. The BFC program benefitted all the key stakeholders by improving work conditions, supporting the growth of the apparel sector in Cambodia (benefitting all local stakeholders), and boosting developed world buyers’ reputation by sourcing from ethical workplaces. BFC has also helped to cushion the negative effects of external changes to the trading environment in the apparel sector (the end of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement quota system in 2005 and the global financial crisis in 2008–09). The program has grown substantially; as of December 2014, BW has reached over a million workers in more than 1,000 factories across eight countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Haiti, Indonesia, Jordan, Lesotho, Nicaragua, and Vietnam). Free full text https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/22699.

 

Lao động di cư theo kênh chính thức và không chính thức tại một số tỉnh Bắc Trung Bộ Việt Nam: Kết quả từ khảo sát hộ gia đình.

Kristin Letts and Nguyễn Thị Mai Thuỷ. ILO Hanoi, 2015.

 

Abstract: Bản báo cáo tóm lược mới của Văn phòng ILO tại Việt Nam cho thấy bức tranh toàn cảnh về lao động di cư theo kênh chính thức và không chính thức ở khu vực Bắc Trung Bộ. Tài liệu giới thiệu những kết quả từ khảo sát hộ gia đình thực hiện tại các tỉnh Thanh Hóa và Hà Tĩnh trong năm 2013 với 23.000 lao động di cư. Free full text http://www.ilo.org/hanoi/Informationresources/Publicinformation/WCMS_379371/lang--vi/index.htm.

 

Regular and irregular migrant workers in North Central Viet Nam: Findings from household surveys.

Kristin Letts and Nguyễn Thị Mai Thuỷ. ILO Hanoi, 2015.

 

Abstract: New policy brief from the ILO Country Office for Viet Nam shows the profile of regular and irregular migrant workers in the northern centre part of the country. It represents the findings from household surveys carried out with more than 23,000 migrant workers in Thanh Hoa and Ha Tinh provinces in 2013. Free full text http://www.ilo.org/hanoi/Informationresources/Publicinformation/WCMS_379368/lang--en/index.htm.

 

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Social development

 

Child-centred climate resilience: case studies from the Philippines and Vietnam.

William Azucena, Felicity McCullum, Susan McGowan, Rachelle Nuestro and Hoang Thu Trang. Plan International and Save the Children International (SCI), 2015.

 

Abstract: This report outlines the practical lessons learned by Plan International and Save the Children about child-centred community-based adaptation (CC-CBA) to climate change. It provides a snapshot of the organizations' work across the Philippines and Vietnam and addresses five key themes:  •participatory approaches: ensuring children’s voices are heard in community-based adaptation •building climate resilience •mainstreaming CBA into policy planning and development •children as agents of change •and the role of communication to mobilise action and replication. Through a series of case studies, the report details some of the specific examples of how project participants have engaged with CC-CBA activities and consolidates best-practice lessons and recommendations for practitioners and donors. [Azucena-etal-2015.pdf]. Free full text https://www.savethechildren.org.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/99551/CCCR_Report_High-Res_FINAL.pdf.

 

Livelihoods under stress: critical assets and mobility outcomes in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam.

Jane M. Chun. International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2014.

 

Abstract: This first edition of the policy brief series examines relocation programmes undertaken due to heavy seasonal floods in the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam. Based on the author’s own empirical research in two rural communes in upstream areas of the Mekong Delta, this edition discusses the key household assets that determine the household vulnerability, livelihood outcomes and mobility decision-making in conditions of environmental stress. The Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Policy Brief Series aims to contribute to the global knowledge base on the relationship between migration and environmental change, including climate change, and the formulation of related policy options. The series is produced as part of the Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Evidence for Policy (MECLEP) project funded by the European Union, implemented by IOM through a consortium with six research partners. [Chun-2014.pdf]. Free full text http://publications.iom.int/bookstore/free/PolicyBriefSeriesMECC_Issue1_Dec2014.pdf.

 

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Shifts in vulnerability landscapes: young women and internal migration in Vietnam.

Christophe Z. Guilmoto and Myriam de Loenzien. Genus: Journal of population sciences, 2014, volume 70, number 1.

 

Abstract: Spatial mobility in Vietnam represents a formidable potential for social mobility for prospective migrants, in spite of being fraught with unanticipated risks. In view of the specific vulnerability of young women, the social risks involved in migration are far greater than for the rest of the population. However, we only have  very limited data on young migrant women and their migration patterns. The  2009 Census offers new ways of describing young women and their migration situation. Using individual and household characteristics, the first part of our analysis provides indirect vulnerability indicators pertaining to the social, economic, and demographic domains (position in the household, marital and reproductive status, education, employment, etc. The second part of our study explores the interplay between migration status and forms of vulnerability among young women. We also highlight the multidimensional aspects of women's vulnerability in Vietnam at different geographical scales. Free full text http://scistat.cilea.it/index.php/genus/article/view/566.

 

Planned relocations in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: A successful model for climate change adaptation, a cautionary tale, or both?

Jane M. Chun. Brookings Institute, 2015.

 

Abstract: This case study seeks to shed some light on the Vietnamese government relocation outcomes based on empirical findings from two upstream areas — Vinh Tri commune, Long An province and Long Thuan commune, Dong Thap province. The government has adopted numerous national policies related to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, and relocation programs feature as one of the government’s key climate change adaptation strategies to decrease the exposure and vulnerability of populations at risk. Overall, while the relocation programs in Vinh Tri and Long Thuan have been able to provide households with safe homes away from hazards, they have often done so at the cost of short and long-term livelihood outcomes. Accordingly, the majority of households reported decreased incomes following relocation, as well as the inability to repay debts incurred as part of the relocation process. These are significant findings which raise questions about the loan-centered approach of the relocation programs, particularly as the targets of relocation for climate change adaptation are poor households, who on the whole struggle to put aside any savings after covering their subsistence costs. However, long term vulnerability has been exacerbated by relocation in Vinh Tri and Long Thuan, particularly for poor households. This is reflected in the increased debt accrued as part of the relocation process, as well as the negative livelihood outcomes for the majority of households. [Chun-2015.pdf]. Free full text http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2015/06/planned-relocations-climate-change/brookings-planned-relocations-case-studyjane-chun-vietnam-case-study-june-2015.pdf.

 

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The Role of Trade Unions in Reducing Migrant Workers’ Vulnerability to Forced Labour and Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

Eliza Marks and Anna Olsen. Anti trafficking review, 2015, volume 5.

 

Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of what trade unions can offer to reduce the vulnerability of migrant workers to forced labour and human trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) and Malaysia as a key destination for GMS migrant workers. The exploration of the potential for the engagement of trade union partners is a timely contribution to the forced labour and anti-trafficking debate, given the shift towards a more holistic labour rights approach, and the ensuing search for more actors and partnerships to combat these crimes, which led to adoption of the Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, (Forced Labour Protocol) in June 2014. Examples from Malaysia and Thailand highlight the role that trade unions can play in policy development and service provision, and also some of the challenges associated with unionisation of a vulnerable, temporary, and often repressed, migrant workforce. Free full text http://www.antitraffickingreview.org/index.php/atrjournal/article/view/84/141.

 

Rethinking resilience: social protection in the context of climate change in Vietnam.

CARE International (CI), 2015.

 

Abstract: The second issue of CARE's Learning Series offers an outline of the concept of climate responsive social protection and presents the rationale and recommendations for further development of this approach in Vietnam. This rationale is supported by case studies and examples from Vietnam and around the world. In recent years, the importance of social protection, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction has risen in prominence both internationally and in Vietnam. The common goal of these three disciplines is to support resilience against shocks and stresses among vulnerable people. Integrating the three disciplines in policy, planning and programming presents huge opportunities for multiplying resilience. For Vietnam, a nation where development is jeopardized by climate change and disasters, and where inequality prevents households most at risk from climate change from accessing resources for adaptation, the question is whether resilience can be fostered at all without an integrated approach. [CARE intl-2015.pdf]. Free full text http://www.preventionweb.net/english/professional/publications/v.php?id=45907.

 

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Tourism

 

The Potentials and Challenges of Responsible Tourism in the Mekong Delta from the Experience of Travel Agencies and Local Communities in Ben Tre Province, Viet Nam.

Dang Mai Giang Tan. Global Review of Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure Management (GRRTHLM), 2014, volume 1, number 2.

 

Abstract: The main objectives of this research were to study the factors influencing the potentials and challenges of Responsible Tourism in the Mekong Delta in Viet Nam. In addition, the research would suggest some good recommendations or solutions from the problems occurring among local people, tourists, travel agents and other participants to the tourism industry of the destination. The research methodology used in this study was the qualitative methodology: the sampling of this study was purposeful focusing on travel agents and some local communities who are working and doing businesses in the tourism industry such as home-stays, local restaurants, tourist attractions, etc. in Ben Tre province, Viet Nam. They were selected in this research because of their experience in the tourism industry and the richness in the data gathered. The interview questions would apply 5 W + H style (What, When, Where, Who, Why and How) to ask the participants such as a vice-manager of Culture, Sports and Tourism Department, 7 travel agent managers and 7 local communities such as home-stay owners, local service providers and local people (farmers). Research findings were as follows: the potentials of Responsible Tourism for local people were better income, better life, enhanced knowledge, exchange culture, natural environment, attitude change and values of local products. The potentials of Responsible Tourism for travelers were awareness of greenness, exchange culture, experience of greenness and satisfaction. The potentials of Responsible Tourism for travel agents were profits, connection, support and reputation. Nevertheless, the challenges of Responsible Tourism were lack of support from the government, spontaneous tourism, competition, infrastructure, transportation, human resources, paperwork, Vietnamese war’s effects, lack of tourist attractions, destroyed culture, limited customers and lack of profits. Finally, the solutions and suggestions for Responsible Tourism were tourism strategies, supports, new products, training courses, attitude change, infrastructure and transportation improvement, co-operation, taking advantages of natural conditions and preparation. Free full text http://www.globalbizresearch.org/files/grrthlm_dang-mai-giang-tan-68190.pdf.

 

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Vũ Thị Nha

Librarian

World Bank Group

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Tel.: +84-4-3934 6845

Email: nvu2@worldbankgroup.org

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