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Nghiên cứu mới về các vấn đề phát triển ở Vệt Nam
Ngày cập nhật 06/05/2016

 Agriculture and rural development

 

·        Coffee price volatility and intra-household labour supply: Evidence from Viet Nam.

·        The Role of Pesticides in SE Asian Rice IPM: A View from the Mekong Delta.

·        Multifunctionality and agrarian transition in alternative agro-food production in the global South: The case of organic shrimp certification in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

 

 

Agriculture and rural development

 

Coffee price volatility and intra-household labour supply: Evidence from Viet Nam.

Structural Transformation and Intertemporal Evolution of Real Wages, Machine Use, and Farm Size–Productivity Relationships in Vietnam.

Yanyan Liu, William Violette and Christopher B. Barrett. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01525, 2016.

 

Abstract: This paper explores the evolution of real agricultural wages, machinery use, and the relationship between farm size and productivity in Vietnam during its dramatic structural transformation over the course of the 1990s and 2000s. Using six rounds of nationally representative household survey data, we find strong evidence that the inverse relationship between rice productivity and planting area attenuated significantly over this period and that the attenuation was most pronounced in areas with higher real wages. This pattern is also associated with sharp increases in machinery use, indicating a scale-biased substitution effect between machinery and labor. The results suggest that rural-factor market failures are receding in importance, making land concentration less of a cause of concern for aggregate food production. Free full text http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15738coll2/id/130285.

 

The Role of Pesticides in SE Asian Rice IPM: A View from the Mekong Delta.

Roy Bateman. Outlooks on Pest Management, 2016, volume 27, number 2, pp. 53-60.

 

Abstract: Pesticide application remains an important component of rice pest management in Viêt Nam and responsible use should be integrated back into a strategy of good agricultural practices.

Crucial skills that need to be fostered include: better product selection with safe and efficient application; the role of action thresholds must also be re-considered. Rice is arguably the world's most important crop by consumption: especially in SE Asia, where 618 million people (11.7%) currently live in 3.3% of the World's land area. According to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations, it is the third most important crop in terms of agricultural commodity trade (after sugar and maize). Viêt Nam is currently the world's fifth largest producer (after China, India, Bangladesh and Indonesia) but is usually one of the top two rice exporting countries. Threats to rice production include losses due to pests (insects, diseases, weeds and rodents). It has been estimated that losses due to pests in tropical Asia are approximately 37% – equivalent to 120–200 million tonnes. In those days as now, the key insect pest was the brown plant-hopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens and diseases – rice blast, Magnaporthe grisea, especially in the spring crop and sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani in the summer season. Methyl parathion and lindane were widely available insecticides, but effective controls of fungus diseases were in their infancy. The phenomenon of insecticide-induced resurgence of insects such as BPH was understood only by a few scientists in Vietnam, and had only been identified in the west for less than a decade. The roles of our team included providing for crop protection supplies (with specific instructions to 'avoid toxic pesticides', which I interpreted as no products in WHO class 1), carrying-out field trials to identify appropriate alternatives and encouraging the Government to adopt pesticide registration and quality control schemes. Crop protection activities were carried out on a commune basis, especially in the north and operationally, application with motorised mistblowers was considered most appropriate. By the end of the 1980s, it had become widely understood that successful insect control was best achieved in the context of integrated pest management (IPM) and over the following decade this strategy, scientifically based on conserving NE (predators, parasitoids and pathogens: see below), became the general foundation for good agricultural practices in rice. In addition, farmers should: grow a healthy soil and crop; observe their field regularly (e.g. soil, water, plant, pests and natural enemies); and strive to become experts themselves. This IPM strategy was enthusiastically officially adopted in Vietnam and other SE Asian countries, but I will argue here that real IPM is not is not being widely practiced by farmers for a number of reasons. Possibly the first of these has been a failure to appreciate the importance of, and engage with, pesticide companies, retailers and others whose business is pest management.

 

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Multifunctionality and agrarian transition in alternative agro-food production in the global South: The case of organic shrimp certification in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Reiko Omoto and Steffanie Scott. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 2016, volume 57, number 1, pp. 121-137.

 

Abstract: Processes of globalisation in the conventional food provision system have had widespread negative impacts on small-scale farmers. Yet, alternative food networks, which are characterised by more sustainable production/consumption practices and fairer trade relations, have increasingly been ‘going global’ and, in the process, have been integrating small-scale farms in the South. One such high-value export-led commodity is certified organic shrimp. International third-party certification schemes are becoming popular as a tool to verify the intangible attributes of such commodities. Using concepts of multifunctionality and agrarian change, this paper examines the implications of introducing an international environmental certification programme to a site where the ‘peasantry’ has been preserved and has limited integration in the global agro-food system. Drawing on a case study that examines the first certified organic shrimp production project in Vietnam, this paper concludes that the current movement towards post-productivism in the global North has potential to keep local farming practices in the global South by justifying the value of peasant-like production methods through international certification. As a result, the development path of agrarian transition might be reshaped into a form not necessarily pursuing industrialisation. This leads to the new interpretation of pre- and post-productivism beyond the North and South divide.

 

Framing REDD+ in the national political arena: A comparative discourse analysis of Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, PNG, Vietnam, Peru and Tanzania.

MJ Vijge, M Brockhaus, M Di Gregorio and E Muharrom. Global Environmental Change, 2016.

 

Abstract: This article analyzes how and with what possible consequences REDD+ is framed in the national policy arena in Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Tanzania, and Vietnam. It analyzes the most prominent views and storylines around key REDD+ design features among policy actors and in policy documents. We focus on storylines related to four questions, namely: 1) What should REDD+ achieve: carbon or also non-carbon objectives? 2) Who should monitor REDD+ outcomes: only technical experts or also local communities? 3) At what level should REDD+ be governed: at national or sub-national level? and 4) How should REDD+ be financed: through market- or fund-based sources? The vast majority of policy actors and policy documents frame REDD+ as a mechanism that should also realize non-carbon benefits, yet non-carbon monitoring receives very little attention. In all but one country, policy documents contain plans to involve local communities in the design and/or execution of measuring, reporting and verifying REDD+ outcomes. With regard to the level at which REDD+ should be governed, while most policy documents contain elements of a nested approach to accounting, almost all countries envision a long-term transition to national accounting and benefit distribution. We found strikingly little discussion among policy actors and in policy documents of how to finance REDD+ and acquire results-based payments. In the conclusion we reflect on possible consequences of the prominence of REDD+ storylines in the seven countries, and argue that carbonization and centralization of forest governance are possible given the limited attention to non-carbon monitoring and the envisioned centralized approaches to REDD+.

 

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Impact of projects initiating group marketing of smallholder farmers—A case study of pig producer marketing groups in Vietnam.

Kerstin Schöll, André Markemann, Bekele Megersa, Regina Birner and Anne Valle Zárate. Journal of Co-operative Organization and Management, 2016.

 

Abstract: In recent years, several projects in Vietnam have focused on establishing farmer groups to link small-scale pig producers to markets in order to improve their livelihoods. To compare the success between different approaches and by contrasting them to individual farmers without joint marketing, data were collected from 286 members of 18 pig marketing groups initiated by seven projects and from 479 non-members in three provinces and the capital of Vietnam. Groups were categorized in Common Interest Groups, Cooperative Groups and Cooperatives. All groups were comparatively described according to member set-up, management, financing and marketing. Propensity score matching was used to evaluate the economic success, as one of the key factors for a long-term operation of farmer groups. Results showed that the intervention projects supporting farmer groups with training and in-kind subsidies seem to have the highest impact on the increase of income of members in comparison with non-members.

 

Economic development

 

Property rights, collateral and interest rates: Evidence from Vietnam.

Christa Maria Hainz and Alexander Danzer, 2015.

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the causal effect of the quality of property rights on the price of collateralized consumer loans. Identification stems from exogenous variation in the im-provement of property rights in Vietnam – following recent accelerations of the land titling program as well as political change in provincial leaderships. We exploit a unique data set which comprises the complete loan data of one of the largest private Vietnam-ese banks, regional level information on the quality of property rights and legal institu-tions as well as an exact measure of bank competition derived from the complete rele-vant geo-referenced bank data of Vietnam. Our findings clearly indicate that more se-cure property rights reduce the cost of credit, and these results are very robust to the inclusion of competition in our regression model. Owing to an institutional peculiarity of the Vietnamese banking practice, we support our findings with a falsification exer-cise on ‘employer-insured’ loans. Free full texthttp://econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/112880/1/VfS_2015_pid_484.pdf.

 

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The Progressivity and Regressivity of Aid to the Social Sectors.

Bob Baulch and Tam Vi An Le. Journal of International Development, 2016, volume 27, number 8.

 

Abstract: This paper analyses the distribution of aid to the social sectors between 2009 and 2011 using aid concentration curves. Its key findings are four-fold. First, despite the stated objectives of donors, total aid disbursements are broadly neutral, favouring neither the most deprived nor relatively well-off countries. Second, the pattern of social sector aid disbursements follows total aid. Third, the aid allocation patterns of bilateral and multilateral donors differ, with multilaterals donors generally being more focused on the poorest countries. Finally, the distribution of aid for health and population is more progressive than that for education or other social sectors.

 

The Effects of Innovation on Firm Performance of Supporting Industries in Hanoi – Vietnam.

Nham Tuan, Nguyen Nhan, Pham Giang and Nguyen Ngoc. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, 2016, volume 9, number 2.

 

Abstract: Purpose: Innovation, including product, process, marketing, and organizational innovation within a firm, is considered as one of essential component for surviving and growing. These innovation activities create value and competitive advantages for successful organizations; therefore, understanding the organization’s overall innovation is the first and foremost to understand the role of innovation on firm performance. The objective of this research is to explore two parts: the impacts of innovation on the different aspect of innovation performance, then their effects to firm performance (production, market, and financial performance). --- Design/methodology/approach: This study uses primary data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire involves 4 parts including general information, innovation activities; innovative performance, and firm performance. This research focuses on firms in supporting industries of mechanics, electronics, motorbike and automobile. These firms are in a list of companies (known as The Excellent Vietnamese Companies in Northern and Central Vietnam) established by JETRO and VCCI. There are 150 firms in this list. The questionnaire survey was administered to directors, CEO of those firms during April and May, 2014. Out of the 150 questionnaires sent out, 118 were valid, accounting for 78.7% of the true response rate. Analysis methodologies of reliability, factor analysis and regression are utilized in this paper. --- Findings: The result demonstrated there are positive effects of process, marketing, and organizational innovations on firm performance in supporting firms. More specifically, the higher the level of innovation activities is, the greater the innovative performance is, which means the larger level of Process, organization and marketing innovation activities are, the higher level of innovative performance are likely to be. Secondly, the higher level of Process, organization and marketing innovative performance, the better level of firm performances is likely to be. To sum up, in order to improve the innovative and firm performance, those firms in supporting industry should highly concentrate on process, marketing, and organizational innovation activities, rather than product innovation activities. --- Originality/value: Initially, this study applies successfully the model which supposing innovation is a process, then clarifying innovation definition through the impact of innovation activities on innovative performances. Secondly, this research confirmed the positive impact of innovative performances on firm performances. It provided one more empirical evidence of the relationship between innovation and firm performance. For practitioners, organizational innovation and process innovation are more important factors affecting innovative performance and firm performance than product and marketing innovation. Therefore, enterprises should focus and mobilize resources to create improvement in organizational structure and

manufacturing processes. Free full text http://jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/viewFile/1564/764.

 

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Networks of Enterprises and Innovations: Evidence from SMEs in Vietnam.

Quang Hung Doan and Hoang Nam Vu, 2016.

 

Abstract: By using the latest dataset from the survey of SMEs conducted in Vietnam in 2011, we show that a firm both participating in a wider network of input suppliers, buyers, and associations of enterprises and conducting innovative activities in production has higher labor productivity than others, implying that networks of enterprises and innovation are complementary to each other in affecting performance of SMEs in Vietnam. We also find that supports of the government including providing better infrastructure to the SMEs and helping the SMEs to be formalized when being established are conducive to the development of the SMEs in Vietnam. Free full text https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/70591/1/MPRA_paper_70591.pdf.

 

The Perceptions and Responses of Vietnamese Firms Towards Deeper Regional Economic Integration: Case Studies from the Food Processing Industry.

Ha Thanh Nhan Nguyen and Peter Enderwick. Journal of Southeast Asian Economies (JSEAE), 2016, volume 33, number 1.

 

Abstract: Increasing regional economic integration amongst ASEAN member countries, and the creation of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) will bring both opportunities and challenges for local firms. This research investigates the perception and understanding of five Vietnamese food processing companies towards the AEC as well as their planned responses towards deeper integration. Case study interviews revealed that respondents had a limited understanding of the AEC, which moderated their strategic responses. Opportunities identified include access to new markets, the possibility of exploiting regionwide resources, and access to regional value chains. Increased competitive pressure, particularly from foreign investors, was the key anticipated challenge. Business responses focused on increasing intra-regional exports, cooperating with potential partner organizations, improving products and processes, and revising marketing strategies. Respondents also believed that the Vietnamese government could do more to support their businesses in the face of deepening economic integration.

 

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Public Management and Strategic Management in Vietnam State-owned Enterprises (SOEs).

Mai Thanh Lan. International Business Research, 2016, volume 9, number 4.

 

Abstract: State owned enterprises (SOEs) play an important role in Vietnam's economy and therefore always receive care from our Party and State. In the context of economic crisis, to stabilize the business situation and overcome the crisis, the State should have a policy which is correct and conformable to the State economic sector to bring the role of macroeconomic regulation of these enterprises into play. The research analyzes the characteristics of SOEs as well as the actual application of the State management policies to this economic sector, from that to assess the difficulties and shortcomings of Vietnam SOEs against the background of globalization. Based on analyzing the documents collected together with the practical surveys of a number of state-owned corporations, groups, the paper gives an overview of the State economic sector in Vietnam and proposes some effective solutions to improve State management over the national economy.

 

Progress in Intra-industry Trade in the Greater Mekong Sub-region.

Kenji Nozaki. Foreign Trade Review, 2016, volume 51, number 2, pp. 147-161.

 

Abstract: The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) attracts investors’ interest today and economic linkage in the GMS is strengthening with the creation of a production network. This paper analyzes the division of labour in the production process by industry. Two industrial sectors are chosen, the clothing industry and automobile industry. Two types of analysis were conducted in this study: one is a detailed analysis of trade figures, with calculation of the Grubel and Lloyd indexes and unit trade value, and the other is the estimation of gravity model. Their results are consistent. In the clothing sector, which is a labour-intensive industry, intra-industry trades include items by both horizontal division of labour and vertical division of labour. In contrast, the automobile sector does not exhibit horizontal division of labour, and signs of vertical division of labour between Thailand and Vietnam are observed. As different types of industry involve the different types of production network, further research will be needed.

 

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The Trans-Pacific Partnership: Unveiling Major Implications for Vietnam.

Vo Tri Thanh and Nguyen Anh Duong. Economy, Culture & History Japan Spotlight Bimonthly, 2016, volume 35, number 2.

 

Abstract: The article explores the implications of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement for Vietnam. Topics discussed include the government's support for international economic integration and opportunities for promoting foreign direct investment and exports made possible by participation in various trade agreements. The new standard for high-quality behind-the-border trade and investment liberalization and the possibility of new investment flows into Vietnam are mentioned.

 

Spatial Spillover Effects from Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam.

Tran Toan Thang, Thi Song Hanh Pham and Bradley R. Barnes. The Journal of Development Studies, 2016, pp. 1-15.

 

Abstract: This paper investigates the role of inter-firm interaction and geographical proximity in the determination of productivity spillover effects from foreign to domestic firms. We developed an estimation approach using the Spatial Durbin model and applied this to a firm-level dataset from Vietnam from 2000-2005. We found that productivity spillovers diminished when the distance between foreign and domestic firms increases and that interactions among local firms amplify the spillovers. Within short distances, the presence of foreign firms creates positive backward, negative forward and horizontal spillovers. Based on the findings, several implications are extracted regarding promotion policy for foreign direct investment in developing countries.

 

Fiscal Decentralization Review in Vietnam: Making the Whole Greater than the Sum the Parts.

World Bank, 2015.

 

Abstract: This report provides a review of fiscal decentralization policies in Vietnam and their impact on the Government’s development objectives. It aims to inform reform of central-local fiscal relations in Vietnam to further promote growth and poverty reduction. The State Budget Law 2002 (SBL 2002) has enabled decentralization of important fiscal responsibilities to local authorities over the past ten years. This report responds to demands for more analysis of fiscal decentralization policies in Vietnam and the extent to which these have delivered on their stability, equity and efficiency objectives. It aims to inform future changes to the system of intergovernmental fiscal relations through revisions to the SBL 2002 and adoption of 2016-2020 Stability Period regulations. This report builds on existing research and aims to provide new analysis and perspectives on the above areas through extensive study of available data, consultations with central and local authorities, and reviews of laws, regulations and policies at central and local levels. It covers the following five pillars of fiscal decentralization: (i) expenditure decentralization and accountability; (ii) expenditure performance of local authorities; (iii) local revenue arrangements; (iv) intergovernmental fiscal transfers; and (v) local borrowing. Free full text http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/03/26012370/making-whole-greater-sum-parts-review-fiscal-decentralization-vietnam.

 

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Education

 

Individual empowerment is not enough: Using a social norms lens to understand the limited educational uptake of Vietnam’s Hmong girls.

Nicola Jones, Elizabeth Presler-Marshall and Tran Thi Van Anh. Policy Futures in Education, 2016, volume 14, number 5, pp. 539-555.

 

Abstract: While on a national level Vietnam has achieved – and surpassed – gender parity in education, restrictive social norms that value Hmong girls primarily for their future roles as wives, daughters-in-law and mothers have largely precluded their advancement to high school. Drawing on qualitative data collected in the country’s Hmong homeland in Ha Giang province, in the remote mountains bordering China, we found evidence of the non-linear nature of change and the limits of legal reform. On the one hand, strong national and local commitment to primary education has transformed expectations in only one generation. Hmong girls are not only attending school for the first time, but despite their heavy domestic workloads, they are regularly outperforming their male peers. On the other hand, because Hmong tradition sees sons, but not daughters, as vital to the religious and economic continuity of the family, girls continue to suffer from parental under-investment. While most girls are beginning to dream of high school, and some of university or teachers college, the filial piety demanded by their elders leaves them with few opportunities to translate their dreams into action. The paper concludes that improving Hmong girls’ educational uptake will take more than educational policy and girl-power – it will necessitate broader inter-sectoral and tailored attention to the web of gender norms binding them to the past.

 

Compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET): Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam.

Maurizio Bussi, Souleima El Achkar Hilal, Leonardo A. Lanzona and Qingrui Huang. ILO DWT for East and South-East Asia and the Pacific, 2016.

 

Abstract: This publication is a compilation of assessment studies on technical vocational education and training (TVET) development in Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. It provides a critical analysis and assessment of the current state of skills development and TVET as well as reviews past and current policies, strategies, programmes and trends, and implications for socio-economic development and employment in these countries. Recommendations are made in identifying future skills and occupations needed given current and future employment levels. The publication is divided into five chapters. Each chapter presents the assessment study findings of each of the five countries. It also includes recommendations that fall under the following categories: identification of a number of remaining gaps and challenges to policy implementation; mechanisms to strengthen the policy framework for improved coordination and implementation; capacity building for TVET institutions and of the overall TVET system; mechanisms to strengthen the linkages between the TVET system and the labour market; and improving access to TVET for the general public and raising TVET's social profile. --- The contents are as follows: Lao People's Democratic Republic: technical and vocational education and training assessment / Souleima El Achkar Hilal; Mongolia: an assessment of the TVET system in Mongolia: policies, structure, outputs, implications, and recommendations for the country's employment and socio-economic development / Souleima El Achkar Hilal; The Philippines: a review of the TVET systems in the Philippines / Leonardo A. Lanzona; Thailand: comprehensive research on the general assessment of current skills systems and delivery: research study on Thailand / Qingrui Huang; Viet Nam: TVET in Viet Nam - situational assessment and inputs for the legal reform process / Souleima El Achkar Hilal. Free full texthttp://www.ilo.org/asia/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_458131/lang--en/index.htm.

 

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Environment

 

Does ISO14001 raise firms’ awareness of environmental protection?—Case from Vietnam.

Bin Ni, Hanae Tamechika, Tsunehiro Otsuki and Keiichiro Honda. Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP) Osaka University Discussion Paper 16-05 2016.

 

Abstract: Environmental protection is an inevitable issue that developing countries all have to deal with during the process of inviting foreign direct investment (FDI). However, high correlation between FDI and pollution doesn’t necessarily indicate that foreign firms are to blame. In this paper, we apply firm-level panel data in Vietnam and unique information on waste discharge to show that foreign firms are actually more active to acquire ISO14001, a voluntary environmental standard. And the adoption will in turn improve firms’ performance in waste control. It also increases firms’ welfare as well as their productivity level. This paper provides strong evidence that firms’ efforts towards corporate social responsibility will eventually benefit themselves as well. Free full texthttp://www2.econ.osaka-u.ac.jp/library/global/dp/1605.pdf.

 

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Climate-Resilient Housing in Central Vietnam.

Tran Tuan Anh, Tran Huu Tan and Tran Van Giai Phong. WorldFish-EEPSEA, 2016.

 

Abstract: This study applied a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) to quantify the economic benefits of long-term, safety-related measures put in place for housing. The results of the CBA show that the possible returns on investment in storm-resilient housing would be positive and high, which implies that investing in stormresilient houses can be economically viable. The results also show that the returns would highly depend on the year when a storm event would take place. If an event would happen early in the housing lifetime, positive returns would be gained from the investment. From a private perspective, positive returns would encourage households to invest in housing resilience. Autonomous adaptation has been occurring and has generally been driven by individual households that are likely to result in substantial investments to increase the resilience of houses. The CBA results also show that storm-resilient housing would have high benefit-cost ratios. In order to encourage individual investment in storm-resilient housing, the government should consider offering assistance to households that agree to undertake appropriate climate-resilient housing. This may take the form of technical assistance, direct subsidies, or low-interest loans. Free full text http://www.eepsea.org/o-k2/view-item/id-555/Itemid-192/.

 

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Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flood Adaptations in the An Xuan Tributary Basin, Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam.

Bui Dung The and Bui Duc Tinh. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA), 2014.

 

Abstract: Flooding is one of the most significant natural disasters to affect Vietnam. This is due to the high frequency of floods in the country and the severe impact they have on agriculture, transportation, water resources, infrastructure and human lives. Floods are a particularly significant problem for households living in low-lying areas such as the district of Quang Dien in Thua Thien Hue province. Projections show that the frequency and severity of floods in Thua Thien Hue will increase in the future due to climate change. Flood depths and inundation areas are also projected to increase significantly. To deal with current flood problems, local communities and government agencies design and implement various adaptation options. This study examines the economic feasibility of upgrading the flood control system in the An Xuan tributary basin in Quang Dien district, Thua Thien Hue province. This assessment is made using a cost-benefit analysis (CBA), in which the costs and benefits of the project were identified and valued using different valuation methods. --- The findings show that upgrading the flood control system of the An Xuan tributary basin would help communities and households avoid the damages that floods cause to their livelihoods, houses and assets. The adaptation project would also help reduce damages to infrastructure, increase the net benefit of  rice production and avoid the cost of social disruption caused by floods. The benefits of the project were valued using both a market-based method and the contingent valuation method (CVM). The change in flood risk due to the adaptation option, and the reduction in the probability of inundation that it would bring, were taken into consideration when calculating the costs and benefits of the adaptation project. ---  The CBA results show that the adaptation is economically feasible (although the estimated values of its benefits using the two valuation methods were not the same, with the CVM giving the bigger value). Upgrading the entire An Xuan tributary would bring great benefits to households and the government and would make good policy sense in light of the potential impact of climate change on future rainfall and sea levels. In other words, because the frequency and intensity of floods is set to increase (along with expected sea level rises), they will cause even more damage to communities than they do now if the An Xuan tributary is not upgraded. This means that it is really worthwhile for the government to invest in this project, as it will increase the sustainability of both agricultural production and socio-economic development. Besides, given the potential economic benefits that it will bring to communities, upgrading the entire An Xuan tributary will also make a significant contribution to sustainable agricultural water management and will improve sanitation conditions. Free full text http://www.eepsea.org/pub/rr/2014-RR5_The&Tinh_web.pdf.

 

Mediation Analysis of Factors that Influence Household Flood Mitigation Behavior in Developing Countries: Evidence from the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Phung Thanh Binh, Xueqin Zhu, Rolf Groeneveld and Ekko van Ierland. WorldFish (ICLARM) – Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA) EEPSEA Philippines Office, 2015.

 

Abstract: This study used the Protection Motivation Theory and mediation analysis to investigate mitigation behavior in response to flood hazards. A household survey and a flood-risk communication experiment with 480 households in selected flood-prone areas in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta were conducted. The results indicated that self-efficacy (i.e., one’s ability to take actions that will reduce flood risks) and response efficacy (i.e., the effectiveness of the action to be undertaken) were consistently good predictors of flood mitigation behavior and important mediators in the relationships between mitigation behavior and its individual determinants. Vicarious experiences from flood-risk training programs and focus group discussions increased people’s motivation to undertake protective action. The effect of focus group discussions on mitigation behavior was fully mediated via self-efficacy and response efficacy while the effect of training was partially mediated via response efficacy. In addition, the indirect effects of most of the independent variables were statistically significant. This implies that ignorance or omission of indirect effects could lead to an incorrect explanation of the factors that influence flood mitigation behavior. Free full text http://www.eepsea.org/pub/rr/2015-RR2_Binhetal_web.pdf.

 

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Results of Thirty Years of Research on Corals and Reefs of Vietnam.

Yuri Ya. Latypov. Open Journal of Marine Science, 2016, volume 6.

 

Abstract: The author traced the history of the thirty years of study of the Vietnamese reefs since the second half of the 20th century up to the present time. This paper describes the types of reefs, taxonomic composition and structure of Scleractinian reef ecosystems. It is shown that due to a high level of diverse knowledge revealed, high species richness of coral fauna of Vietnam (376 species of 80 genera) is a single point of origin coral fauna Indo-Pacific. Analysis of knowledge of Vietnamese corals and reefs revealed the extent of their positive or negative status under anthropogenic influence or under the level of wilderness protection, experiment on artificial cultivation of corals and the re-establishment of a coral community. Free full texthttp://file.scirp.org/pdf/OJMS_2016041916223195.pdf.

 

Arsenic contamination of groundwater and agricultural soil irrigated with the groundwater in Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

Yi Huang, Keisuke Miyauchi, Ginro Endo, Le Dinh Don, Nguyen Cong Manh and others. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2016, volume 75, number 9, pp. 1-7.

 

Abstract: Groundwater is widely used for irrigated farming. In this study, arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater and surface soil of agricultural fields irrigated with groundwater in Mekong Delta in Vietnam was investigated. Total As concentration and arsenite-As (As(III)) concentrations of 16 groundwater samples and total As concentration of 16 surface soil samples from agricultural fields where the groundwater was used for irrigation were measured. Mekong river water samples and surface soil samples from agricultural fields where the Mekong river water was used for irrigation were also analyzed as reference soil samples. As concentration of all measured groundwater samples were higher than the Vietnamese standard for As concentration of irrigation water (50 μg/L), and As(III) was the most abundant form of As in the groundwater. Total As concentrations of 10 of 16 soil samples exceeded the Vietnamese standard for As concentration of soil (12 mg/kg) and a positive correlation between As concentrations of groundwater samples and of soil samples was observed. Water-soluble and phosphate-exchangeable As fractions in the soil samples were more than 16 % of total soil As content. These data suggest that irrigation with groundwater in Mekong Delta area increases the As concentration of agricultural field soil, and that countermeasure technology to remove As from the contaminated groundwater should be needed to keep sustainable irrigation agriculture in Mekong Delta area.

 

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Gender issues

 

Vietnamese Brides' Practices of Maternal Citizenship at the China-Vietnam Border.

Pengli Huang and Sik Ying Ho. Asian Women, 2016, volume 32, number 1.

 

Abstract: This paper shows how Vietnamese brides create new transnational subjectivities through practicing maternal citizenship at the China-Vietnam border. It focuses on discussing different strategies they have adopted in their daily lives: 1) blurring the boundaries between house-keeper and breadwinner; 2) developing dual belonging; 3) establishing transnational maternal alliances; and 4) neutralizing ethnicity/nationality differences. The authors argue that through forming a ''creolized'' culture, Vietnamese brides have engaged in a conscious attempt to master both Chinese and Vietnamese elements in their making of a new transnational identity. The China-Vietnam border not only provides a favorable context for the development of personal relationships, but these relationships are also an attractive strategy for gaining a social foothold in the more and more globalized world, whether they are in a cosmopolitan center or cosmopolitan periphery.

 

Recourse Seeking and Intervention in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence in Vietnam: A Qualitative Study.

Sidney Ruth Schuler, Rachel Lenzi, Tu-Anh Hoang, Song-Ha Vu, Kathryn M. Yount and others. Journal of Family Issues, 2016, volume 37, number 8, pp. 1151-1173.

 

Abstract: This qualitative study examines attitudes toward recourse seeking and intervention in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in periurban Vietnam. The data come from 20 open-ended interviews, 4 focus group discussions, and 40 cognitive interviews conducted with married men and women. The findings indicate that many people hold contradictory beliefs and inconsistent attitudes about IPV and IPV intervention. Also, most informants know about the law against domestic violence in the abstract, but have limited knowledge of, and confidence in, potential mechanisms for recourse provided under the law. Strategies intended to undermine IPV and promote recourse seeking and intervention in Vietnam should be strategically designed to address ambivalence concerning IPV and recourse, and there should be a focus on changing norms associated with masculinity. Further efforts are needed to disseminate information about existing laws and mechanisms of recourse.

 

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Governance

 

Beneficiary Participation in Non-Governmental Development Organisations: A Case Study in Vietnam.

Fleur Mercelis, Lore Wellens and Marc Jegers. The Journal of Development Studies, 2016, pp. 1-17.

 

Abstract: Beneficiary participation in development projects has been an important topic of debate during the last decades. In the empirical research on the matter beneficiaries themselves are seldom, if ever, asked about their perceptions of participatory mechanisms in place. We present such a (case) study on the Vietnamese local office of a European non-governmental development organisation, also probing into other stakeholders? perceptions (46 interviews in total). Our observations allow us to refine some aspects of the extant theoretical insights on beneficiary participation and representation, as well as to formulate some recommendations for organisations aiming at increasing beneficiary participation in their decision-making.

 

Land Cover Map of the Lower Mekong Basin.

K. Kityuttachai, S. Heng and V. Sou. Mekong River Commission (MRC) Technical Paper No. 59, 2016.

 

Abstract: Land cover is defined as the observed (bio)physical cover on the earth’s surface which is believed to provide critical refuge and spawning habitats for many life forms. In the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB), the health of these habitats is considered "good" but threatened by development. A wide range of stakeholders recognises the importance of land cover for sustaining human-dependent livelihoods and maintaining the ecological integrity of the basin, as reflected in the widespread use of land cover types as the basis for agro-ecological zones. --- To develop and update a land cover map of the Lower Mekong Basin for 2010, the MRC  Secretariat cooperated with Member Countries to conduct field surveys on land cover at 9,357 points in 703 areas across the basin. This report seeks to contribute to improving knowledge and understanding of the distribution, ecological functioning and conservation of land cover with a synthesis of the results of field surveys coupled with interpretations of satellite imagery. Information is illustrated in land cover description cards in Annex 1. --- The Project to Update the Land Cover Map of the Lower Mekong Basin has generated important baseline data for water resource planning, floodplain management and other activities such as hydrological and climate change studies together with environmental modelling. --- The land cover data set covers both the dry and wet periods in 2010 as well as separate annual data comprising a combination of the two. The annual map for 2010 shows that Broadleaved Deciduous Forest and Paddy Rice accounted for more than half of the land cover of the Lower Mekong Basin. Shrubland was the next most common type of land cover followed by Broadleaved Evergreen Forest, Annual Crops, Industrial Plantations and Urban Areas. Broadleaved Deciduous Forest alone accounted for 29 percent of the basin's land cover, up from 21 percent in the previous map of land cover produced for 2003. Paddy Rice accounted for 23 percent, down from 24 percent. In addition to providing updated estimates for other types of land cover, the map for 2010 also features new seasonal crop data for Shrimp rotating with Paddy Rice between the dry and wet periods and Paddy Rice rotating with Annual Crops. ---  The updated land cover data set is very important to support decision making. The data, information and image interpretation are also useful for those engaged in studies and research in the Lower Mekong Basin. At the same time, this report seeks to raise awareness among stakeholders of the significance and ecological functions of land cover in the LMB. Free full texthttp://portal.mrcmekong.org/assets/documents/landcover/Technical_Paper_on_LC_Map_(MRC_Technical_Paper_No.59).pdf.

 

Land Reform and Farm Production in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam.

Trung Thanh Nguyen, 2016.

 

Abstract: Economic theory has suggests that increased tenure security will lead to increased productivity. However, existing literature on the relationship between land tenure and land productivity provides inconclusive evidence. The present paper analyzes the impact of land reform on chemical fertilizer use and land productivity of rural farms in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam using a panel dataset collected before and after land reform. The result shows that land reform has a positive impact on both chemical fertilizer use and land productivity, but the level of influence is different between land privatization and land titling. Relevant policy implications are thus derived for the promotion of farm production in the region. Free full text http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2770387.

 

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Healthcare and Nutrition

 

Improving hospital death certification in Viet Nam: results of a pilot study implementing an adapted WHO hospital death report form in two national hospitals.

Merrilyn Walton, Reema Harrison, Anna Chevalier, Esmond Esguerra, Dang Van Duong and others. BMJ Global Health, 2016, volume 1, number 1.

 

Abstract: Background: Viet Nam does not have a system for the national collection of death data that meets international requirements for mortality reporting. It is identified as a ‘no-report’ country by the WHO. Verbal autopsy reports are used in the community but exclude deaths in hospitals. --- Methods: This project was undertaken in Bach Mai National General Hospital and Viet Duc Surgical and Trauma Hospital in Viet Nam from 1 March 2013 to 31 March 2015. In phase 1, a modified hospital death report form, consistent with the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, was developed. Small group training in use of the report form was delivered to 427 doctors. In phase two, death data were collected, collated and analysed. In phase three, a random sample (7%) of all report forms was checked for accuracy and completeness against medical records. --- Findings: During the 23 months of the study, 3956 deaths were recorded. Across both hospitals, 222 distinct causes of deaths were recorded. Traumatic cerebral oedema was the immediate cause of death (15% of cases, 575/3956 patients), followed by septic shock (13%, 528/3956), brain compression (11%, 416/3956), intracerebral haemorrhage (8%, 336/3956) and pneumonia (5%, 186/3956); 67% (2639/3956) of patients were discharged home to die and 33% (1314/3956) of deaths were due to a road traffic accident, or injury at home or at work. --- Conclusions: This study confirms the viability of implementing a death report form system compliant with international standards in hospitals in Viet Nam and provides the foundation for introducing a national death report form scheme. These data are critical to comprehensive knowledge of causes of death in Viet Nam. Death data about patients discharged home to die is presented for the first time, with implications for countries where this is a cultural preference. Free full text http://gh.bmj.com/content/bmjgh/1/1/e000014.full.pdf.

 

Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Central Hospital in Quang Nam Province of Vietnam Funded by Korean ODA [Full text in Korean].

Soon Jung Kwon, Yeo Kyoung Yu, Jihyun Kim and Seol Ah Bang. Journal of The Korea Institute of Healthcare Architecture, 2016, volume 22, number 1.

 

Abstract: Purpose: This is the ex-post evaluation on "the Central General Hospital in Quang Nam Province in Vietnam" funded by Korean ODA. Through this evaluation, this study tries to explore useful ways to improve the effectiveness of Korean ODA projects related to hospital establishment. Methods: Field survey and analysis of questionaire to the staffs and patients of Quang Nam Province General Hospital were conducted twice in 2012 and 2014 after the completion of the Hospital. Two sets of surveys and questionaire outcomes have been comparatively analysed by statistics in order to seek the trend of satisfaction level of hospital users and find out the improvement way in hospital design and construction. Results: The satisfaction level on the hospital was relatively high and that of 2014 is higher than that of 2012. The satisfaction level of the users was recorded in Likert 5 scales. Continuous facility complement and maintenance is considered as the main contributor in increasing the satisfaction level of users. As far as the satisfaction level of outpatient is concerned, that of 2012 was recorded as 3.65 and that of 2014 was 4.05. In case of inpatient, the satisfaction level on the hospital in 2012 was 3.76, and 4.06 in 2014. Implications: In overseas hospital projects, proper hospital project management system including medical service plan, strategic plan, brief, design & construction and maintenance have to be put together effectively and efficiently for the success of the hospital project. At the same time local climate, culture, building material and local code have to be considered in order to build sustainable hospital. Free full text http://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/ArticleFullRecord.jsp?cn=OBSHBY_2016_v22n1_39.

 

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Diabetes in Vietnam.

N. T. Khue. Annals of Global Health, 2015, volume 81, number 6, pp. 870-3.

 

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The prevalence for diabetes, prediabetes, and gestational diabetes in Vietnam are low relative to other parts of the world, but they are increasing at alarming rates. These changes have occurred in the setting of economic and cultural transitions. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide relevant information depicting the diabetes burden in Vietnam. METHODS: Literature was reviewed using PubMed and local Vietnamese sources, including papers published in the Vietnamese language. FINDINGS: In 2012, the prevalence of diabetes was 5.4% and prediabetes 13.7%. In 2005, the prevalence of obesity was 1.7%. There is a dual burden of over- and undernutrition observed in Vietnam. Diabetes is associated with an increased waist-to-hip ratio despite normal body mass index. Nutritional transitions occurred with increased protein, fat, and fast foods, and with decreased fresh fruits and vegetables. Tobacco use is very high in Vietnam with 66% of adult men currently smoking. Challenges include endocrinology training, health care coverage, patient education, and lack of coordination among government and specialist agencies. CONCLUSION: Diabetes is a growing problem in Vietnam and is associated with obesity, changes in dietary patterns, and other cultural transitions. More research is needed to better understand this health care problem and to devise targeted interventions.

 

Impacts of Bribery in Healthcare in Vietnam.

Midori Matsushima and Hiroyuki Yamada. The Journal of Development Studies, 2016, pp. 1-20.

 

Abstract: This study explores how bribery in the health sector is associated with people?s well-being and with universal health coverage. By using the data of Vietnam from 2011 and 2012, this study reveals a negative correlation between the prevalence of bribery and health outcomes and the health insurance coverage. Additionally, the results indicate that bribers feel neither cured of injury/disease nor satisfied with healthcare service quality. Furthermore, there is a significantly negative correlation between the belief of the necessity to give a bribe and the health insurance enrolment decision.

 

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Roles and Functions of Social Networks Among Men Who Use Drugs in ART Initiation in Vietnam.

Carl A. Latkin, M. Kumi Smith, Tran Viet Ha, Tran Thi Mo, Carla Zelaya and others. AIDS and Behavior, 2016, pp. 1-8.

 

Abstract: Support from social network members may help to facilitate access to HIV medical care, especially in low resourced communities. As part of a randomized clinical trial of a community-level stigma and risk reduction intervention in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam for people living with HIV who inject drugs (PWID), 341 participants were administered a baseline social network inventory. Network predictors of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at the 6-month follow-up were assessed. The social networks of PWID were sparse. Few participants who reported injectors in their networks also reported family members, whereas those who did not have injectors were more likely to report family members and network members providing emotional support and medical advice. In multivariate models, having at least one network member who provided medical advice predicted ART initiation at 6 months (OR 2.74, CI 1.20–6.28). These results suggest the importance of functional social support and network support mobilization for ART initiation among PWID.

 

The Political Economy of Mental Health in Vietnam: Key Lessons for Countries in Transition.

Kelley Lee, Rebecca Zappelli, Elliot M Goldner, Vu Cong Nguyen, Kitty Corbett and others. Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies, 2015, volume 2, number 2.

 

Abstract: Among low- and middle-income countries, there is evidence that populations experiencing rapid political and economic transition have particularly high burdens of disease and disability from mental health conditions. This paper undertakes a political economy analysis of mental health in Vietnam to enhance knowledge translation, notably how both explicit and tacit knowledge can be used to promote evidence-based policy making. It argues that Vietnam's experience illustrates the need to better understand, not only how transition transforms societies, but how it impacts on the mental health needs and care of populations. The political economy of transition in Vietnam has so far given highest priority to economic growth through integration with the world economy and public sector reform. There is a need to recognise that transition in Vietnam poses both a potential threat to the care of people with mental health needs, and an opportunity to develop mental health services appropriate to local contexts.

 

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The cost of not breastfeeding in Southeast Asia.

Dylan Walters, Susan Horton, Adiatma Yudistira Manogar Siregar, Pipit Pitriyan, Nemat Hajeebhoy and others. Health Policy and Planning, 2016.

 

Abstract: Rates of exclusive breastfeeding are slowly increasing, but remain suboptimal globally despite the health and economic benefits. This study estimates the costs of not breastfeeding across seven countries in Southeast Asia and presents a cost-benefit analysis of a modeled comprehensive breastfeeding strategy in Viet Nam, based on a large programme. There have been very few such studies previously for low- and middle-income countries. The estimates used published data on disease prevalence and breastfeeding patterns for the seven countries, supplemented by information on healthcare costs from representative institutions. Modelling of costs of not breastfeeding used estimated effects obtained from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Modelling of cost-benefit for Viet Nam used programme data on costs combined with effects from a large-scale cluster randomized breastfeeding promotion intervention with controls. This study found that over 12 400 preventable child and maternal deaths per year in the seven countries could be attributed to inadequate breastfeeding. The economic benefits associated with potential improvements in cognition alone, through higher IQ and earnings, total $1.6 billion annually. The loss exceeds 0.5% of Gross National Income in the country with the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rate (Thailand). The potential savings in health care treatment costs ($0.3 billion annually) from reducing the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia could help offset the cost of breastfeeding promotion. Based on the data available and authors’ assumptions, investing in a national breastfeeding promotion strategy in Viet Nam could result in preventing 200 child deaths per year and generate monetary benefits of US$2.39 for every US$1, or a 139% return on investment. These encouraging results suggest that there are feasible and affordable opportunities to accelerate progress towards achieving the Global Nutrition Target for exclusive breastfeeding by 2025.

 

A Delivery Model for Home Fortification of Complementary Foods with Micronutrient Powders: Innovation in the Context of Vietnamese Health System Strengthening.

Marie Nguyen, Alia Poonawala, Magali Leyvraz, Jacques Berger, Dominic Schofield and others. Nutrients, 2016, volume 8, number 5.

 

Abstract: Adding micronutrient powders (MNP) to complementary foods at the point of preparation (home fortification) can improve micronutrient status of young children. Ensuring sustained access to MNPs at scale, however, remains challenging in many countries. The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) partnered with the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) in Vietnam to pioneer the distribution of a locally-produced MNP, provided for sale through the public health system with counseling on optimal infant and young child feeding practices by trained health workers. Different packaging options were available to adapt to caregivers’ disposable income. During the six-month pilot, 1.5 million sachets were sold through 337 health centers across four provinces, targeting children 6–59 months of age. Sales were routinely monitored, and a cross-sectional survey in 32 communes for caregivers (n = 962) and health staff (n = 120) assessed MNP coverage and compliance, five months after the start of distribution. A total of 404 caregivers among the 962 caregivers surveyed (i.e., 42%) had visited the health center in the past year. Among them, 290 caregivers had heard about the product and a total of 217caregivers had given the MNP to their child at least once, representing a conversion rate from product awareness to product trial of 74.8%. The effective coverage (i.e., consumption of ≥3 sachets/child/week) was 11.5% among the total surveyed caregivers and reached 27.3% amongst caregivers who visited health centers in the previous month. The MNP purchase trends showed that the number of sachets bought by caregivers was positively correlated with the wealth index. The pilot showed that providing MNPs for sale in packs of various quantities, combined with infant and young child feeding (IYCF) counseling at the health center, is effective for groups accessing the health system. Free full text http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/5/259/htm.

 

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Large-scale television campaign associated with higher prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Vietnam.

Tuan T Nguyen, Silvia Alayón, Phuong H Nguyen, Ann Jimerson, Nemat Hajeebhoy and others. The FASEB Journal, 2016, volume 30, number 1 suppl.

 

Abstract: Background: Few studies, especially in lower middle-income countries, have examined the role of mass media interventions on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, critical for optimal child growth and development. To improve IYCF practices in Vietnam, Alive & Thrive (A&T) invested in a nationwide TV campaign (from November 2011 to December 2014) to promote optimal IYCF practices. The campaign focused on broadcasting short TV spots that convey small, doable actions in a persuasive, attractive manner. During the same period, A&T introduced standardized IYCF counseling services in government health facilities across 15 of 63 provinces. The aim of this study was to examine the association between exposure to breastfeeding TV spots and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice and its determinants in two settings: areas with and without facilities offering IYCF counseling services (referred as A&T-I and A&T-NI, respectively). --- Methods Data were collected in four provinces from 11,722 mothers of children under 6 months old in five cross-sectional surveys — one before and four after the launch of the campaign. The study outcomes were EBF and its determinants — knowledge, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy. Exposure to the campaign was assessed in two ways: any exposure to the TV spots and dose of exposure. Dose was based on the number of messages recalled from the TV spots: unexposed / did not recall; recalled 1–2 messages; and recalled ≥ 3 messages. Post-campaign EBF prevalence and the score of its determinants at different levels of exposure were compared with those from baseline using multiple logistic and linear regression models. --- Findings EBF prevalence increased significantly from 24% to 55% in A&T-I communes, but remained unchanged in A&T-NI communes. Compared to baseline, exposure to the TV spots was associated with higher EBF in A&T-I communes (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 2.7, 4.1) and A&T-NI communes (OR: 1.3; 95%: 1.03, 1.7). The more messages mothers recalled the more likely respondents were to practice EBF. In A&T-I communes, all dose categories were associated with higher odds of EBF compared to baseline: unexposed/did not recall (OR: 2.4; 95%CI: 1.9, 3.1); recalled 1–2 messages (OR: 3.1; 95%: 2.5, 4.0); and recalled ≥ 3 messages (OR: 4.7; 95%CI: 3.8, 5.8). In A&T-NI communes, mothers who could recall ≥ 3 messages were twice as likely to EBF as those at baseline (OR: 2.0; CI: 1.5, 2.6). Population attributable fraction (PAF) analysis using data from the A&T-NI sample showed that if all mothers with an infant under 6 months were exposed to A&T breastfeeding TV spots and recalled at least one message, there would have been an increase of 13.5 percentage points in EBF prevalence or additional 144,769 infants with EBF in 3 years. In any A&T-I and A&T-NI areas, findings from bivariate and multiple analyses consistently showed that scores of knowledge, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy were significantly higher after than before the mass media campaign. Regression coefficients (β) were greater in mothers who recalled more messages; and those who live in A&T-I. Based on exposure to TV spots (58%) and the estimated number of women aged 15–35 years during the intervention period, the TV spots reached an estimated 9,350,000 women at a cost of 0.19 USD per woman. --- Conclusion Exposure to large-scale breastfeeding promotion campaign on TV is associated with an increase in EBF, which makes it a viable delivery platform to be used in conveying IYCF messages and improving practices at scale.

 

Vietnam - Scaling up rural sanitation: strengthening demand creation and supply chain: Synthesis report.

Hang Diem Nguyen. World Bank, 2016.

 

Abstract: This report concerns two streams of Technical Assistance provided by the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) to the Government of Vietnam. They are: strengthening the enabling environment, capacity building systems and evidence-based learning and lesson sharing. Strengthening demand creation and supply chain development together these TAs make up a support program to assist the Government of Vietnam, particularly the Ministry of Health (MOH) in accelerating progress on sanitation under the third National Target Program on Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (NTP3). WSP has supported the government to improve the enabling environment for sanitation service delivery; strengthen rural sanitation supply chains; generate demand for improved sanitation; and inform service delivery models through knowledge and learning. The TAs began in Dec 2012 and are due to end in Jun 2016. This report documents the results and lessons learned from the TA, and makes recommendations for future activities in support of rural sanitation. Free full text http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/04/26278144/vietnam-scaling-up-rural-sanitation-strengthening-demand-creation-supply-chain-synthesis-report.

 

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Impact Analysis of Foresight for STI Policy Formulation: Cases of Romania, Vietnam and Kazakhstan.

Ricardo Seidl Fonseca. in: Deploying Foresight for Policy and Strategy Makers: Creating Opportunities Through Public Policies and Corporate Strategies in Science, Technology and Innovation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, pp. 197-225.

 

Abstract: The chapter focuses on the application of foresight for formulation and implementation of science, technology and innovation policy and strategies, named STI foresight. In this context, it proposes a modelling concept and framework for individual and comparative impact analysis of STI foresight exercises. After an introduction to set the context and methods for project evaluation, the paper addresses the use of future-looking methods for identifying potential science and technology developments and research activities that could be applicable in the longer term to target needs of developing countries and emerging economies. Further, a the paper examines the most appropriate methods for evaluating foresight exercises, especially those dedicated to science, technology and innovation policy and strategies. Finally, case studies in Romania, Vietnam and Kazakhstan are evaluated according to the proposed modelling. Eventually the proposed modelling shall constitute a benchmarking framework for designing and evaluating STI foresight exercises.

 

Poverty

 

Poverty Dynamics The Structurally and Stochastically Poor in Vietnam.

Nguyễn Việt Cường, Đỗ Liên Hương and Phùng Đức Tùng. VNU Journal of Science: Economics and Business, 2015, volume 31, number 5E.

 

Abstract: This paper aims to measure poverty dynamics in Vietnam using the most recent Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) from 2010. Since there are no panel data between the 2010 VHLSS and the previous studies, this study uses the asset approach to estimate the proportion of structurally and stochastically poor. It is found that the proportion of structurally and stochastically poor is 11.1 percent and 9.6 percent, respectively. Nearly half of the poor are the stochastically poor. The proportion of stochastically non-poor, who are non-poor but vulnerable to poverty, is small, at around 3.7 percent. Free full text http://ueb.edu.vn/Uploads/file/tapchi_tbbt@ueb.edu.vn/2016/01/1.%20Cuong%20Viet%20Nguyen.pdf.

 

Migration

 

Internal Labor Migration as a Shock Coping Strategy: Evidence from a Typhoon.

Andre Groger and Yanos Zylberberg. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 2016, volume 8, number 2.

 

Abstract: We analyze how internal labor migration facilitates shock coping in rural economies. Employing high-precision satellite data, we identify objective variations in the inundations generated by a catastrophic typhoon in Vietnam and match them with household panel data before and after the shock. We find that, following a massive drop in income, households cope mainly through labor migration to urban areas. Households with settled migrants ex ante receive more remittances. Nonmigrant households react by sending new members away who then remit similar amounts than established migrants. This mechanism is most effective with long-distance migration, while local networks fail to provide insurance.

 

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Tourism

 

The Industry Cluster Approach for Tourism Development of Central Vietnam.

Truong Hong Trinh. International Journal of Business and Management, 2016, volume 11, number 5.

 

Abstract: Industry cluster is frequently mentioned in the literature of the regional economic development, but there are a few studies about identifying competitive clusters in the region. For this reason, the paper approaches cluster analysis for identifying competitive clusters in Central Vietnam. From location quotient and shift-share analysis, the result reveals that tourism cluster is a competitive cluster for the regional economic development. Then, the study develops the tourism cluster in central Vietnam that includes tourism cluster profile, tourism production network, and tourism value chain. Moreover, the study result provides a basic framework for industry cluster analysis that help policy makers and economic developers to understand economic activities, characteristics of competitive cluster and supranational characters in the regional economy, then deliver strategy and policies for tourism cluster development of Central Vietnam. Free full text http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijbm/article/view/58001.

 

Water

 

A Water Related Information System for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong Delta: Experiences of the German-Vietnamese WISDOM Project.

Claudia Kuenzer, Florian Moder, Verena Jaspersen, Malte Ahrens, Manuel Fabritius and others. in: Integrated Water Resources Management: Concept, Research and Implementation, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016, pp. 377-412.

 

Abstract: This chapter presents the evolvement of an environmental information system, built for the Mekong Delta, in the context of the German-Vietnamese research project WISDOM (Water related Information System for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong Delta). The WISDOM project (2007–2014) belonged to a group of Integrated Water Resources Management, IWRM, projects, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science, BMBF, on the German side, and the Vietnamese Ministry of Science and Technology, MOST, on the Vietnamese side. Goal of the multi-disciplinary project has been to contribute to numerous knowledge gaps existing for the Mekong Delta. Applied research questions from the fields of hydrology, hydro-morphology, chemistry, geography, ecology, biology, socio-economy, as well as administration and law were addressed by a large group of PhD students and post-doctoral researchers active in the project. One goal and also one—but not the—central element of the project has been the design of a water related information system, which can serve as a planning aid for decision makers and stakeholders in the delta. At the same time the freely and online available, bilingual (English and Vietnamese) WISDOM Information System, serves as a central project hub, which ensures that the majority of project findings that come in the form of geodata, in situ measurement collections, maps, statistics, reports, or scientific publications is available to the public. In this paper, geographic background and challenges of the focus area, project set-up, Information System design, components realized, training measures undertaken, as well as general experiences when realizing large projects in emerging countries are elucidated and discussed.

 

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